Presentation on theme: "Women of Color Faculty in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Experiences in Academia* AERA 2013 San Francisco, CA Sylvia Hurtado."— Presentation transcript:
1 Women of Color Faculty in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Experiences in Academia* AERA 2013 San Francisco, CASylvia Hurtado and Tanya FigueroaHigher Education Research Institute, UCLA* in press (proceedings of National Academy of Sciences: Prepared for Seeking Solutions: Maximizing American Talent by Advancing Women of Color in Academia). June 2012, Washington, DC.
2 A Word about Intersectionality Women of color face a “double bind” for having two identities that are especially undervalued in STEM contextsThe intersection of both gender and race is reflected in women of color’s unique perceptions of the workplace in academiaThe purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of underrepresented women of color in academia. We compare URM women with STEM colleagues in terms of sources of stress, workload demands, and satisfaction.
3 Data SourceHERI Faculty Survey, administered triennially 2010 Individual institutional administration 2010 STEM Supplement-NSF sponsored Institutions added to augment sample Sample: 673 four-year colleges and universities 11, 039 STEM faculty (unweighted) 272 Women of Color in STEM 2013 Faculty Survey:
4 Sample: Rank, Race and Gender in STEM ProfessorAssociateAssistantLecturer/ InstructorURM Women272 (2.5%)16.2%24.6%31.3%23.5%Asian Women258 (2.3%)18.6%29.5%30.2%15.1%White Women3,857 (34.9%)22.5%28.8%29.6%14.4%URM Men374 (3.4%)28.6%27.8%21.9%16.3%Asian Men565 (5.1%)30.8%24.1%6.5%White Men5,713 (51.8%)41.8%26.3%17.8%8.6%Percentages by row may not add to 100% because we are missing rank data for those people.
5 Top 10 Sources of Stress Comparisons URM Females86.4 Lack of personal time82.4 Self-imposed high expectations79.0 Managing household duties69.9 Working w underprepared students66.0 Institutional budget cuts65.8 Personal finances61.8 Research or publishing demands61.0 Institutional 'red tape'61.0 Teaching loadStudentsWhite MalesLower on:Lack of personal timeSelf-imposed high expectationsManaging household dutiesInstitutional ‘red tape’ (Higher)White FemalesStudents (Higher)URM MalesManaging household duties
6 Women of color are significantly more likely to report stress in the last two years related to subtle discrimination than either male or female faculty in STEM. Note Asian women are as likely to report this source of stress as URM women, there are no statistical differences between those groups.* Astroids on the bar signify that the mean for that group is stat different from URM femalesNote: Significant male/female differences within group** p=<.01; * < .05.
7 The average amount of stress faculty experience related to their career. Includes sources of stress: committee work, colleagues, students, research or publishing demands, institutional procedures/red tape, teaching load, lack of personal time, and self-imposed high expectations. URM women have among the highest reported levels of career-related stress, higher than white women at the associate level but lower than white women at the lower ranks.
8 Workloads for STEM Tenure Track Faculty (5+ hrs/wk on respective task) Advising Counseling StudentsWhiteURMAsianMale38.5*42.743.2Female43.648.544.3Committee Work or Meetings36.1**38.632.3**43.840.8Research and Scholarly Writing59.8*66.2**73.3*44.949.560.2Note: Significant differences with URM females, **= p<.01; *=p<.05.
9 Work Environment White URM Asian Male 79.3** 77.0 83.3** Female 72.7 My Research is Valued by Faculty in My DepartmentWhiteURMAsianMale79.3**77.083.3**Female72.769.777.6I Have to Work Harder Than My Colleagues to be Perceived as a Legitimate Scholar52.4**60.1**7466.6*79.180.9Note: Significant comparisons with URM females; **=p <.01; *=p<.05.
10 Mean satisfaction with compensation is measured by responses to the following items: Salary, retirement benefits, opportunity for scholarly pursuits, teaching load, job security, and prospects for career advancement. While URM women are more satisfied than Asian Females or URM males at the assistant professor level, this pattern quickly changes once one is tenured. URM female professors are least satisfied.
11 Conclusion and Implications URM women share many of the same experiences as other women in STEM but also have unique sources of stress, as well as lower satisfaction and respect.Salary equity studies, professional development support & dept. support for advancement.Assessment challenge:Severe underrepresentation makes the data difficult to collect because of their vulnerablity/identification.How to use information to change dept. climate, navigating political issues.