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Whose ideology, where and when ? Rama (Nicaragua) and Francoprovençal (France) experiences C. Grinevald - M. Bert Dynamique du Langage Université Lyon.

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Presentation on theme: "Whose ideology, where and when ? Rama (Nicaragua) and Francoprovençal (France) experiences C. Grinevald - M. Bert Dynamique du Langage Université Lyon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Whose ideology, where and when ? Rama (Nicaragua) and Francoprovençal (France) experiences C. Grinevald - M. Bert Dynamique du Langage Université Lyon 2 HRELP ELAP Workshop: Beliefs and Ideology LONDON - Friday 27 - Saturday 28 February 2009

2 Introduction  We are not experts, just linguists… - with parallel experiences : Latin America / France over 20 years - concerned, as faculty, with training and supervising junior field linguists of EL  … proposing a “road map” for establishing “ideological clarity”, considering: 1. The who and where of ideological complexity 2. The synergies and conflicts of the Rama Language Project 3. The synergies and conflicts of the Francoprovençal situation

3 1. The who and where of ideological complexity Spheres of EL ideologies a. Academia Field linguist d. International - Worldwide b. Local Endangered Language c. Regional c. National

4 1. The who and where of ideological complexity a. Academic sphere Foundations for EL DEL 2006 HRELP 2002 VW 1998 FEL and ELF  Linguists organizations Germany - GBS 1997 USA - LSA 1992 Australia - ALS 1984  Individual linguists Description Documentation Archiving + Revitalization Fieldwork ON / FOR / WITH / …BY Desk / field ; theory / description Academia Field linguist

5 1. The who and where of ideological complexity b. Local  Linguistic communities ▪ activists ? local organizations ? ▪ conscious or not, politicized ? ▪ unified / atomized ; real / virtual  Variety of speakers ▪ attitudes of speakers ▪ "good" speakers, "last" speakers, "semi- speakers“… Local Endangered Language

6 1. The who and where of ideological complexity c. National and Regional ● National Constitution Laws Educational system ● NGO ● (Indigenous) organizations ● Missionaries ● Autonomy laws Educational system ● Regional government ● (Indigenous) organizations National Regional

7 1. The who and where of ideological complexity d. international - worldwide FOUNDATIONS for EL NGO – Media Biodiversity WWF – World Wildlife Foundation Climate IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Indigenous rights Survival International United Nations Indigenous rights UNESCO 2003 Intangible Heritage 2008 International Year of Languages 2009 New edition of the Atlas of EL UNICEF Local educational programs International - Worldwide

8 Synergies and conflicts  Energies toward EL ++ very positive + positive 0 no particular energy, indifference - negative - - very negative  Synergies and conflicts: Ebb and flow over the last 20+ years Rama (1984 – 2009) Francoprovençal (1990 – 2009)

9 2. Synergies and conflicts of Rama project a. The Rama situation Nicaragua language hierarchy: Spanish (official) English Creole / Kriol Miskito Sumu Mayangna - Ulwa Rama Rama Cay Creole Rama speakers (1986) of 900 population

10 2. Synergies and conflicts of Rama project b. Political origins (1984) Field linguist ++ NGO : CHRLA LFN - Linguists For Nicaragua ’80 Eugene Council For Human Rights in LA (Chili, Nicaragua…) ++ ’79 Sandinista Revolution Ministery of Culture Contrawar → ++ ’87 Autonomy of Atlantic Coast Linguistic Rights → ++ Demands of Rama leaders for revitalization of Rama CHRLA LFN International - Worldwide Academia National Regional Local EL

11 2. Synergies and conflicts of Rama project c. Description and revitalization ( ) Field linguist $ NSF – NEH – WG for ‘Science’ ++ $ LFN for revitalization CHRLA, others ++ CIDCA Centro de Investigación y Document. de la Costa Atlántica Rama contradiction (island vs. mainland) ++ Miss Nora - - no ‘tiger language’ from ‘tiger people’ ! 1992 ‘Endangered Languages’ ++ LSA, XV° ICL at Quebec Academia National Regional Local EL International - Worldwide

12 2. Synergies and conflicts of Rama project c. Documentation - Archiving + Revitalization ( ) Field linguist $ Univ Tromso - Univ URACCAN for revitalization ++ $ HRELDP … for dictionary and archiving Biospheric reserve of S.E Nicaragua 1999 (UNESCO) - - Threats to Rama Territory - “dry canal” ( // Panama) ? - inland invasion - Islands sold for tourism ++ Gobierno Territorial Rama Kriol (GTRK): defence of territory ++ Demarcation of Rama territory by GTRK → more demands for revitalization of Rama Academia National Regional Local EL International - Worldwide

13 3. Synergies and conflicts in Francoprovençal situation a. The Francoprovençal situation French language hierarchy : - French (official) - Occitan, Breton, Alsacian… (recognized, taught) - Francoprovençal Not recognized, cannot be taught, spoken in 3 countries (France, Switzerland, Italy) Speakers: ~ in France All + than 60 yr.o Name of language unknown

14 3. Synergies and conflicts in Francoprovençal situation b. Description (1990-…) Description: ON 0 (≠ other France languages, as Occitan, Breton, Alsacian…) 1992 European Charter: - France abstains 0 no action from the Regional Government 0 speakers indifferent + semi-speakers interested 0 / + a few activists isolated demands European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages Field linguists Academia National Regional Local EL International - Worldwide

15 3. Synergies and conflicts in Francoprovençal situation c. Description, promotion (2000) Description + Archiving FOR and WITH + Popularizing + Sensitizing to EL European Charter: + France signs - but in the end does not ratify 0 no action from the Regional Government 0 speakers indifferent + semi-speakers + beginning of local coordination AULF Association Universitaire des Langues de France ++ European Charter Field linguists Academia National Regional Local EL International - Worldwide +

16 3. Synergies and conflicts in Francoprovençal situation d. D D A + R (2008) D D A + R: WITH and BY Regional languages mentioned in French Constitution - France still refuses to ratify the European Charter Language planning (FORA) Demands to French State together with others Regions ++ Federation of local associations Participation in FORA + Speakers ++ Semi-speakers € FORA Project ++ Francoprovençal Occitan Rhône-Alpes - sociolinguistic survey - propositions for regional language planning Field linguists Academia National Regional Local EL ++ European Charter International - Worldwide

17 Conclusion 1- Road map EL D D ↓ A + R -Cultural Rights -Nation-State 1 State - 1 language -Regional identity 1 region - 2 languages (francoprovençal + occitan) FW ON FOR ↓ WITH + BY North Europe France -Human Rights -Indigenous Rights -Regional autonomy -Linguistic rights ’80 1 people – 1 language -Land Rights people - 1 territory North / South Latin America Nicaragua Speakers and communities attitudes Worldwide International Academia National Regional Local EL

18 Conclusion 2 - So what do we tell students? What do we tell students about this ideological complexity ?  to prepare them  to coach them  and not to scare them ! What is reasonable to expect of  field linguists working on EL ?  of linguistic students in PhD programs ? Thank you!


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