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Exploring the Internet 91.113-021 Instructor: Michael Krolak.

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1 Exploring the Internet 91.113-021 Instructor: Michael Krolak

2 Tonight Roll Call Class Announcements Internet and Academia Assignments

3 What is Academia? academia n. 1.Academia is a general term for the whole of higher education and research. The word comes from the Greek referring to the greater body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. In the 17th century, English and French religious scholars popularized the term to describe certain types of institutions of higher learning. The English adopted the form academy while the French adopted the forms academe and academie.

4 Think Back... Academia pushed for the development of the internet and the World Wide Web, in particular, for the dissemination of scholarly research. ARPANET began at four universities. NSFNET, which allowed for non Computer Science departments to access the Internet, was driven by academic institutions.

5 History of the Book Wrote down Oral History Scribes copied the texts for preservation Scribes become powerful members of society Within Europe most scribes were members of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church

6 The Printing Press Gutenberg, Johann, c.1397–1468, German inventor and printer, long credited with the invention of a method of printing from movable type, including the use of metal molds and alloys, a special press, and oil-based inks: a method that, with refinements and increased mechanization, remained the principal means of printing until the late 20th cent. His type, which was hand set with characters of equal height, was printed on handmade paper. In the fifty years following Gutenberg’s first press in Mainz (1450 – 1500), as many book copies were printed as had been produced in the previous millennium by scribes

7 Impact on Society Martin Luther claimed that the invention of printing was a gift from God to reform His church. Without access to the printed editions of biblical texts, and their variations over time regarding crucial dogmatic issues they contain, Luther might never have developed Protestantism. Without the printing press, Luther might never have spread his ideas not only in the Latin of the scholarly community but also in the vernacular German of the lay community.

8 The Fall of Constantinople (1453) The Fall of the Roman Empire Constantinople was sacked and conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Constantinople, as the capitol of the Roman Empire, housed some of the most ancient writings. If the printing press had not been invented, scholars believe that the Renaissance would have ended.

9 Rate of Growth of Other Media It took 75 years for phones to reach 50% of U.S. households (now at 93% after 100 years). Televisions after 60 years are in 95% of U.S. households After 25 years, VCRs were in 85% of US households After 25 years, cable TV were in 64% of US households.

10 Eras of finding information Mnemonics – The dominant method until 1700 Indexes – The preferred method until 1990 Networked search engines – The ideal method

11 The Traditional Book Pros Tangible Static / Permanent A tactile experience You can write in the margins You can highlight text Cons Water can damage it Ages Impacted by the environment Limited search capabilities

12 Problems Facing the Modern Academic In 1911, Professor Lane Cooper published a concordance of Wordsworth’s poetry. The concordance was 1,136 pages and contained 211,000 non trivial words. Three generations of the Moulton family dedicated their lives to the concordance of the Greek New Testament. In 1875, Mary Clarke completed a concordance of the complete works of Shakespeare in only 16 years. Source: “Managing Gigabytes: Compressing and Indexing Documents and Images” Witten, Moffat, Bell

13 Problems Facing Modern Libraries Old and Rare books are environmentally sensitive Old and Rare books cost a great deal to maintain.

14 What is an e-Book? ebook n. An electronic or digital version of a book. The term is used ambiguously to refer to either an individual work in a digital format, or a hardware device used to read books in digital format. Some users deprecate the second meaning in favour of the more precise "ebook device."

15 Where can I get eBooks? Amazon.com Barnes and Noble Project Gutenberg Fictionwise.com Baen Free Library

16 Project Gutenberg Over 16,000 books available. All Project Gutenberg eBooks are free as in beer for anyone living in the United States: You may download all Project Gutenberg eBooks for your personal use for free. Most Project Gutenberg eBooks are also free as in speech: You may copy them, give them away and use them in any way you like. Project Gutenberg is the oldest producer of free eBooks on the Internet. Our collection was produced by hundreds of volunteers.

17 The Pros and Cons of the e-Book Pros Full text searchability Highly portable Dynamic Correctable Cons Requires a computer Subject to Environmental Hazards Not easily marked up No tactile experience in reading Not everyone is on the same page

18 The rise of e-Libraries The e-library resides on the Internet and allows the user access to the library’s catalogs and electronic collections (24 hours a day – 7 days a week). The user can use it to locate the books in the public access catalog. Access electronic books and journals. Access to newspaper archives such as the Boston Globe, Boston Herald, etc.

19 What is the Virtual Library? It is a collection of sites and materials evaluated for their content and usefulness and designed to assist the specialist in finding material in an efficient manner. The virtual library is a catalogue of special collections of data, documents, and research and reference tools for information found in web sites. It does not have a physical library of books but has only electronic documents. Finally, virtual libraries are also called Gateways, Information Portals, and Cyber libraries

20 Examples of Virtual Libraries The WWW Virtual Library was started soon after the WWW was created by Tim Berners-Lee and a large group of volunteers. While extensive it is not uniformly maintained. http://www.vlib.org/http://www.vlib.org/ The University of Michigan's School for Information http://www.ipl.org/ it seeks to learn by doing -- using the faculty and graduate students to create a state of the art information system. An online collection that will grow and follow leading edge of the art practices.http://www.ipl.org/

21 How does this impact Academia? “Thirty years from now, the big university campuses will be relics... The college won’t survive as a residential institution.” Peter Drucker

22 Academia vs. Private Institutions The accessibility to the Internet’s resources has allowed non-accredited private institutions to compete with established academic institutions for on-line training and education Over the last ten years, the price of private and public university education has more than doubled. Academia may be overpricing itself. Brilliant researchers vs. brilliant teachers

23 Evaluate Sources Traditional academia has checks and balances to make sure that fraudulent claims are not perpetuated throughout society. The Internet allows anyone to publish anything without being reviewed by peers and colleagues. The Internet is dynamic not static. Information is not always accessible again and therefore not reproducible.

24 What is Distance Learning? distance learning n. 1. Education or training that occurs away from the source of instruction and information.

25 Pros and Cons of Distance Learning Pros Can take classes from professors all over the world Available to people who have jobs, have children, are sick, are in prison, or are in remote areas of the world. Classes not offered locally can be found online. Cost effective Cons Not face to face Less effective in building academic relationships, business networks, or personal relationships. Think about the MUDs. Higher level of motivation required

26 Examples of Distance Learning The Open University since 1980 Open Courseware at M.I.T. Distance Learning through UMASS Lowell Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business Virginia Commonwealth University

27 Virtual Universities Public Institutions Western Governor’s University International University Athena University Private Institutions Microsoft Online Learning Oracle Learning Architecture

28 Click http://libweb.uml.edu/home/http://libweb.uml.edu/home/ Then the Remote User button & use your id and password to register How to get started


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