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Alabama Center for Nanostructured Materials (ACNM) Mahesh V. Hosur, PI/Director Center for Advanced Materials Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL 36088 Annual.

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Presentation on theme: "Alabama Center for Nanostructured Materials (ACNM) Mahesh V. Hosur, PI/Director Center for Advanced Materials Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL 36088 Annual."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alabama Center for Nanostructured Materials (ACNM) Mahesh V. Hosur, PI/Director Center for Advanced Materials Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL 36088 Annual EPSCoR Meeting, Feb. 13, 2007, Huntsville, AL

2 ACNM Mission/Goals Synthesize and produce bulk nanocrystalline materials and develop new materials with enhanced thermal, physical and mechanical properties Integrate research and education in the area of Nanotechnology Initiate new, as well as enhance existing partnerships with industry and academia to attract new funding through development of joint proposals Educate and graduate underrepresented students with expertise in the area of Nanotechnology Conduct National and regional workshops, summer high school and undergraduate student internship programs Research, Education, Training and Outreach

3 Personnel UniversityFacultyGrad. Students Undergrad. Students High School Students Tuskegee51888 Alabama A& M845- Auburn11-- UAH351- USA111- 1829158 Out of 29 graduate students, 15 are PhD students with 8 of them being African-Americans, 5PhD students are being supported by the alabama State Graduate Student Research Program It is anticipated that at least 5 PhD students will graduate by May 2008

4 GSRP Awardees Ivy K. Jones Wanda D. Jones Merlin Theodore Jean Michael Taguenang Bopah Chhay

5 ACNM Outcomes Journal/conference Publications: 64 Presentations at the national and international conferences Organizing and chairing sessions at international conferences M.S. Thesis (5), Undergraduate technical reports Summer high school program Graduate courses in Nanotechnology at TU and USA Participation of students in oral and poster presentation competitions Increased number of proposals submitted and funded Publicity –Visit to the center by President Bush, April 19, 2006 –First article of TU EPSCoR program appeared in Montgomery advertiser on July 25, 2005: gee25w.htm

6 President Bush Visits Tuskegee University Center for Advanced Materials (T-CAM)-April 19, 2006 “I met some students who knew lot about nanotechnology-PhD candidates who knew lot about nanotechnology” - President Bush, April 19, 2006

7 Summer High School Program Eric Rousell, Jr. Selma Early College High School (10th grade) Future Career: Aerospace or Marine Engineering While in this program, I learned about Material Science and Engineering. We also learned about nanotechnology and how it is being applied in numerous applications in our everyday lives. I learned a lot and would like to come back next year.-----Eric Rousell, Jr. Summer 2006 High School Students with their mentors

8 Collaborations National/Federal Labs: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, National High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, ARL, AFRL, Navy, NRL, ORNL, NASA-MSFC Academia: Cornell, Purdue, Univ. of Delaware, Mississippi State University, Carnegie Mellon Univ., University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Florida State University Industry: Raytheon, Boeing, IBM, USP International: Japanese National Institute for Metals, University of Liverpool

9 Course Development Nanocomposite Materials (Dr. Rangari, TU with Dr. Anter from FSU, 10 students) Nanoscale material synthesis, properties and applications Theory, modeling and simulation studies Synthesis mechanisms and morphological changes in nanoscale materials systems, as well as the properties of materials at the nanoscale Nanocomposites (Dr. Parker, USA, 16 students) Dielectric, electric, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties of nanocomposites Research and analyze published work dealing with applications

10 Research Themes Synthesis, Processing, Modeling, Characterization of nanophased fibers, matrices, composites, and sandwich constructions (Tuskegee) Nano-layered nanoparticles, Glassy Polymeric Composites (Alabama A & M, Tuskegee) Molecular Dynamic simulations (Auburn) Modeling and processing of nanoparticles under the influence of magnetic field (Univ. of South Alabama, Tuskegee) LC Based Chemical and Biological Sensor Using Capacitive Transduction, Integrated Nanophotonics, LC Polar Anchoring Measurements (Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville)

11 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of CNF/ Epoxy Nanocomposite Matrix: SC-15 Epoxy Reinforcement: Carbon Nano Fiber 0 wt. %, 1 wt. %, 2 wt. % and 3 wt. % Storage Modulus 70% improvement Glass Transition Temp. 7 o C increase Tensile Modulus 17.4% improvement Tensile Strength 19.4% improvement Fracture toughness 23% increase in fracture toughness was observed in 2 wt% system Fatigue Performance At the same fatigue stress level, 140% improvement in fatigue life was observed in 2 wt% system by the bridging effect of CNF

12 Mechanical Properties of Nanophased Nylon Fibers With the use of 1% silica spherical nanoparticles by weight, an increase of 100 to 150% in the tensile properties was observed in nylon-6. It was also observed that the fibers infused with 1% by weight whisker form of Si 3 N 4 exhibited more than 300% improvement in tensile strength. TEM picture of Nylon-Si 3 N 4 Aligned Nano whisker

13 Experimental-Flexural Results VARTM results Hand-Layup results Flexural stress-strain plot Flexural Strength, MPa % Gain/ Loss in strength Flexural Modulus, GPa % Gain/ Loss in modulus Neat380 ± 3. 3-37.57 ± 0.77- 1% Nanoclay 426 ± 10.8112.1043.8 ± 2. 1316.58 2% Nanoclay498 ± 12. 8131.0546.2 ± 0. 8122.97 3% Nanoclay446 ± 8. 9517.3646.9 ± 1. 2224.8 Fabric: 8-layered plain weave 3k, Resin: SC-15 Epoxy, Nanoclay: Nanocor® I-28E

14 Impact Response VARTM results Fabric: 8-layered plain weave 3k, Resin: SC-15 Epoxy, Nanoclay: Nanocor® I-28E Neat 1% 2% 3% Impact Energy: 30J Sample Damage Area (mm 2 ) Neat 1144 1% 860 2% 660 3% 920

15 Different Methods of Functionalization Oxidation Fluorination Amino-functionalization HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 F F F C = O OH C = O NH 2

16 Flexural 3-point bend test MaterialMax. Strength (MPa) Modulus (GPa) Epon 862 neat139.7± 7.13.5± 0.08 Nanocomposite/ MWCNT -UNMOD152.1 ± 20.24.1 ± 0.2 Nanocomposite/ MWCNT -COOH151.1 ± 14.94.8 ± 0.6 Nanocomposite/ MWCNT -F136.1 ± 12.23.6 ± 0.0 Nanocomposite/MWCNT-NH 2 162.8 ± 4.64.2 ± 0.1

17  Conventional polymer foams are produced, for example, by introducing gas bubbles into liquid monomer  Syntactic Foams are produced by embedding pre-formed hollow/solid microspheres within a polymer matrix PVC Foam (open cell)PUR Foam (closed cell)PVC Foam (closed cell)Syntactic Foam  Microballoons act as cells of the conventional foam  They are very similar to the cellular, gas expanded solidified liquid  A tertiary system whereas conventional foams are binary system Syntactic Foam (TU)

18 MatrixSC-15 Epoxy Part A: diglycidylether of bisphenol- A, Part B: Diethelene tri amine (DETA) Viscosity: 300 cps, Density: 1.09 g/cc MicroballonsK-15 (3M) Size: 30-105 µ m Avg. Density: 0.15 g/cc Avg. wall thickness: 0.7 µ m NanoparticlesNanoclay- K10 (Sigma Aldrich Inc.) Shape: Plate type Avg. surface area: 220-270 m 2 /g Manufacturing of Nanophased Syntactic Foam (TU)

19 Flexural strength (MPa) Improvement in strength (%) Flexural modulus (GPa) Improvement in modulus (%) Neat sample 17.7 ±0.21-1.33 ±0.039 - 1 wt% Nanoclay 20.3 ±0.1314.71.50 ±0.036 12.8 2 wt% Nanoclay 25.1 ±0.1541.81.57 ±0.043 18.0 3 wt% Nanoclay 22.8 ±0.1128.81.57 ±0.035 18.0 Mechanical Properties of Syntactic Foam (TU) Flexural test results of the samples indicate a maximum improvement in strength and modulus of about 42% and 18% respectively for 2 wt % nanoclay system

20 Thermal Properties of Syntactic Foam (TU) Storage modulus (MPa) % ChangeLoss modulus (MPa) % ChangeT g ( 0 C)Change ( 0 C) Neat sample1220 ±12-123.2 ±0.23-105 ±0.32- 1 wt% Nanoclay1497 ±2622.7145.6 ±0.4118.2109 ±0.434 2 wt% Nanoclay1590 ±2130.3157.4 ±0.8227.8112 ±0.197 3 wt% Nanoclay1292 ±185.9128.8 ±0.114.5109 ±0.224 Storage modulus increased by 30% and also 7 0 C increase in glass transition temperature is observed for 2 wt % nanoclay system

21 Thermal Properties of Syntactic Foam (TU) Coefficient of thermal expansion was found using the formula as follows: The slope of the initial portion of the curves give the value for dL/dT and L is the thicknesses of the samples CTE ( µ m/m 0 C) Change ( 0 C) Neat sample41.9 ± 0.62- 1 wt% Nanoclay40.5 ± 0.33-1.4 2 wt% Nanoclay39.7 ± 0.93-2.2 3 wt% Nanoclay35.1 ± 0.39-6.8 TMA results exhibited 70C decrease in CTE value for 3 wt % nanoclay system

22 Objectives Traditional Technology—BiTe/SbTe Semiconductors 21st Century Technology---Metal/Insulator nano superlattice Results Higher Thermoelectric figure of merit Approach Zn 4 Sb 3 / CeFe (4-x) Co x Sb 12 nano-layered superlattices Si 1-x Ge x /Si after Bombardment by 5 MeV Si Ions Au/SiO 2 Metal nano particle superlattice Future Plans Produce a prototype high temperature metal/insulator thermoelectric generator for direct energy conversion of waste heat Thermoelectric Generator (with superlattice nano particles): AAMU Summary 50 to 1000 nanolayers were produced in house. Post Irradiation reduced thermal conductivity, increased electrical conductivity as well as increase Seebeck Coefficient. Thus Figure of Merit increased. ZT=(S 2 σT)/  Figure of Merit (ZT)

23 +V 2 - V xB +V 1 Neutral Return Mass Selector Pump Acceleration and focusing Electric arc nano Particle Source Nano particle production and electro magnetic mass separation: AAMU Approach 1 Produce 10-100 nm metal particles 2 Use ion beam techniques for mass separation 3 Use optical techniques to characterize size distribution Future Plans Continue student involvement in nano scale technology research (Nano particles for innovative solar cells) Work with Tuskegee University for tests of carbon composites with nano particle additives Objective Involve undergraduate students in significant nano technology Results Optical evidence of 2-5 nm silver nano particle production

24 Approach 1 CNT: Electrical and Mechanical 2 Al 2 O 3 and SiC, Electrical 3 Ion Beam Surface Modification Controlled cell adhesion Controlled porosity Collaborate closely with carbon composite pioneers at Tuskegee University Objectives To Enhance 1 Mechanical properties: Hardness, Stiffness, Strain to fracture 2 Transport properties: Electrical, Thermal, Fluid diffusion 3 Biocompatibility Future Plans Technology Transfer Aerospace Medical Consumer Carbon Nano Tube 50  m 10-30 nm Glassy Polymeric Carbon Composites AAMU 10% 5% 3% 2% 1% Virgin GPC CNT Composite Results 50% Increased strain to failure 300% Increased stiffness High Temperature (3000 °C), Low Density (1.45 /cm 3 ) Thermal expansion (zero), Inert (except oxygen)

25 Magnetic Field-Induced Nanoparticle Dispersion (USA) Good dispersion of heavy metallic nanoparticles (iron oxide) under magnetic field Development of lab scale magnetic field device Modeling magnetic field dependence of nanoparticle dispersion Good agreement between experimental results

26 Capture efficiency versus (root) magnetic velocity for various thicknesses of the surfactant layer indicating the extent to which the surfactant layer thickness frustrates the process of agglomeration Capture Efficiency Vs Magnetic Velocity for different surfactant layer thicknesses

27 Summary of Research Activities of Auburn ACNM Team (a) (b) Ab initio calculated (a) lattice thermal expansion and (b) elastic constants of Al 2 O 3. Study thermal and mechanical properties through molecular modeling and simulation Model structure and properties of hard ceramic fillers and soft polymer matrix Modeling of Si 3 N 4, Al 2 O 3, SiC, and TiO 2 Initiated simulation studies using LAMMPS code developed by Sandia National Lab.

28 Perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) optical waveguides with air trenches (partial support for 2 PhD students) Ring Resonator Design with Air Trench Splitters Measurement of AWG in PFCB ACNM-UAH Effort Nanofabrication of air trenches in PFCB waveguides enables high efficient, extremely compact planar optical components Fabricated smallest arrayed waveguide (AWG) utilizing nano-patterned air trench reflector Fabricated a compact ring resonator utilizing nano-patterned air trench splitters

29 Integrated Nanophotonics Nanophotonic wave structure significantly reduces waveguide loss New waveguide allows meter propagation distance propagation rather than mm

30 Proposal Submission Funded Grants: ($3.985 M) A Research and Educational Partnership in Nanomaterials between Tuskegee University and Cornell University, 8/1/06-7/31/11, ($2.55 M with $2.1 M TU share) Enhancement of Research Infrastructure in the Materials Science and Engineering Program at Tuskegee University, 9/1/06-8/31/08, ($1.0 M) Characterizations of Nanocomposites and Composite Laminates, Air Force/HBCU/MI program 8/1/05-7/31/07 ($225 K, subcontract from Clarkson Aerospace, Inc.) Modeling High-rate Material Responses for Impact Applications, 11/1/05-10/31/06 (subcontract from Mississippi State Univ. $100K) SBIR Phase I: Advanced Composites Research to Reduce Costs, 6/15/2006, Ondax Inc. ($105K) STTR Phase I: Nanocluster characterization in Volume Holographic Glass gratings,6/25/2006, Ondax Inc. ($105K) Other non funded proposals $ 881 K (TU being prime) $ 18.35 M (with Mississippi State and Florida Atlantic with TU share of $2.05 M)

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