Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 (GOODWIN) – PSYCHOLOGY’S PRACTITIONERS Dr. Nancy Alvarado."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 13 (GOODWIN) – PSYCHOLOGY’S PRACTITIONERS Dr. Nancy Alvarado
Research vs Practice Psychology Experimental Psychology Clinical Psychology Psychonomic Society APS (Association for Psychological Science) Ph.D. APA (American Psychological Association) Ph.D. or Psy.D
Ph.D vs Psy.D vs MD Clinical Practice PsychiatryClinical Psychology Clinical Research Mental Health Care M.D. with Internship in Psychiatry & board certification + Psychoanalytic Training (optional) Ph.D. with research dissertation + clinical internship & licensure Psy.D with supervised practice instead of dissertation + clinical internship & licensure Work in university Work in clinic Work in hospital or clinic
What About Counseling? Psychiatry Problems with Living and Personality Disorders Major Axis disorders (mental illness) Clinical Psychology Mental Health Care Counseling (MFT & school) Social work and social service agencies Pastoral counseling Therapy for adjust- ment problems Therapy, diagnosis and testing, coordination of care in agencies/institutions Management of drug and other medical treatment, evaluation of organic factors, institutional care
Researchers vs Practitioners Prior to WWII, academic psychology dominated the APA but that gradually changed. First, clinical psychologists formed other organizations. The balance shifted in 1962 when those in nonacademic (clinical) jobs outnumbered academics. The APA was restructured in 1982 to include divisions to restore the status of experimental psychology. Experimental psychologists formed the Psychonomic Society (1960) and later, the APS (1988). The split represents different values & interests.
The Limited Role of Psychologists Before the war, psychologists worked under psychiatrists (who had medical training) and psychologists were limited to administering tests. There was little formal training except on-the-job. During the war psychologists began providing therapeutic services because the need was so great. The govt NIMH funded training of clinical psychologists. Psychologists were recognized as expert diagnosticians and therapists, no longer restricted to a clinic setting or supervised by a psychiatrist.
Deaths in WWI
Deaths in WWII
Psychological Effects of WWII 40% of casualties of the Battle of Guadalcanal (1942) requiring evacuation were psychological ‘breakdowns.’ Of the first 1.5 million medical discharges, 45% were for psychiatric reasons. At the end of the war, 44,000 people were hospitalized at the VA for mental disorders, compared to 30,000 for physical wounds. Psychiatry could not meet the need for treatment.
Battle Stresses Trying to understand what had contributed to the tremendous psychiatric casualty levels of this prolonged battle, Lidz (1946, p. 194) concluded that: “…there were many factors preying on the emotional stability of the men. The tension of suspense in one form or another was among the most serious; waiting to be killed, for death had begun to seem inevitable to many, and some walked out to meet it rather than continue to endure the unbearable waiting; waiting for the next air raid and the minutes of trembling after the final warning; waiting for the relief ships; waiting without acting through the jungle nights, listening for the sounds of Japs crawling, or for the sudden noise that might herald an attack; waiting even in sleep for the many warning sounds. The fears were numerous: of death, of permanent crippling, of capture and torture, of ultimate defeat in a war that was starting so badly... [as well as] fear of cowardice... and of madness.” “In this first offensive battle of the war it became clear that the incapacitating wound could arrive with the mail from home... the loss of a girlfriend, the fight with parents” (Lidz, 1946, p. 195).
Examples of Shell Shock Films of Shell Shock in WWI: e=related e=related US Army documentary on battle stress (1947): General Patton slapping incident (from the movie Patton (1970):
The Boulder Model David Shakow headed the APA’s Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology (CTCP) in 71 professionals met at the Univ. of Colorado in Boulder to create a blueprint for training. 3 forms of expertise were needed: Diagnosis – training in assessment was provided. Therapy – a year-long internship was required. Empirical research – a dissertation was required. This “scientist-practitioner” approach was known as the Boulder Model
The Eysenck Study In 1952, Hans Eysenck published “The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation” suggesting that traditional psychotherapy was ineffective. He compared 5 psychoanalytic studies and 14 eclectic therapies with a control group of 2 studies of “neurotics” without treatment (from insurance records). Improvement was 72% for controls compared to 44% for psychoanalysis and 64% for the eclectic therapies. The methods were flawed but the study damaged the reputation of psychotherapy in the 50’s & 60’s.
Behavior Therapy Behaviorists challenged psychoanalytic approaches by developing alternative therapies applying the results of their studies. Hobart & Mowrer developed a treatment for bed- wetting involving a bell ringing when a sheet was wet, attacking deep-seated psychoanalytic explanations. Eysenck developed “behavior therapy” & a journal. Wolpe developed systematic desensitization, a behavior modification technique to treat phobias (irrational fears) based on learning theory.
Systematic Desensitization He applied Mary Cover Jones’s approach of pairing a fear response with a pleasure response (counter-conditioning). Cats were shocked when they approached food, then the fear response was replaced with food in rooms gradually changed to resemble the original room. He used progressive relaxation to replace food when working with humans. People develop an anxiety hierarchy then pair an imagined scene with relaxation until anxiety fades.
Other Behavioral Approaches Token economies -- Skinner Cognitive-behavior therapy Ellis – rational emotive therapy Beck – treatment for depression based on Seligman’s Learned Helplessness Behavior modification – based on analysis of behavior and changing rewards.
Humanistic Psychology Humanistic psychology rejected psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Human behavior cannot be reduced to repressed biological instincts (Freud) or simple conditioning. The past does not inevitably limit the future. People are characterized by free will, a sense of responsibility and purpose, and a search for meaning in one’s life. There is an innate tendency toward growth called self- actualization
Two Important Humanists Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow Maslow trained as an experimental psychologist studying dominance behavior in primates. He was hired as faculty at Brooklyn College then moved to Brandeis University in He focused on the nature of psychological health not disorders, examining the lives of self-actualized people (e.g., Ruth Benedict, Max Wertheimer). He said self-actualizers see reality accurately, are independent and creative, have a strong moral code and see their work as more than a job.
Carl Rogers After a very strict Protestant upbringing, Rogers studied theology at Union Seminary but switched to Columbia Teacher’s College and psychology. Leta Hollingsworth encouraged his interest in child guidance. He disliked psychoanalysis during his training. He spent 12 years as staff psychologist at a child guidance clinic in Rochester NY, developing his own therapeutic approach.
Rogers in Academia In 1940 Rogers was hired at Ohio State University where he wrote “Counseling & Psychotherapy” in Then he moved to the Univ. of Chicago. He was elected president of the APA in 1946 signaling the shift from research to clinical psychology. After 12 years in Chicago, he moved to the Univ. of Wisconsin, where his work was attacked. In 1961 he moved to California, originally at the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute, then he founded the Center for the Study of the Person.
Client-Centered Therapy Rogers rejected the need to delve into the client’s past but instead focused on creating a therapeutic relationship supporting growth. The therapist must be honest with the client. The therapist must be unconditionally accepting of the client’s worth (by virtue of being a human being). The therapist must have empathy (understanding of the client’s viewpoint) modeled using reflective listening. Rogers conducted research to test the effectiveness of his approach. The approach was popular.
The Vail Conference The Boulder Model had difficulties: Practitioners outside academia found little use for their research skills and felt they had insufficient clinical training. Grad students weren’t getting good clinical training because academics had no time for practice. Crane proposed a new degree – Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), emphasizing clinical training. The Vail Conference (1973) set standards for new programs, legitimizing the degree.
Recent Changes in the Field Clinical psychology has gained respect and distinguished itself from psychiatry. After legal battles, clinical psychologist now have the right to: Admit & release patients from mental hospitals. Serve as expert witnesses in court. Receive payments from insurance companies. Disputes over prescription privileges continue – a few states allow it.
Remainder of Chapter The remainder of this chapter will be discussed during lectures later in the quarter when the Hothersall chapters focus on testing and people such as Cattell. The remainder of this Goodwin chapter will not be on Midterm 2, but may be on the Final exam.