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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 (GOODWIN) – PSYCHOLOGY’S PRACTITIONERS Dr. Nancy Alvarado."— Presentation transcript:


2 Research vs Practice Psychology Experimental Psychology Clinical Psychology Psychonomic Society APS (Association for Psychological Science) Ph.D. APA (American Psychological Association) Ph.D. or Psy.D

3 Ph.D vs Psy.D vs MD Clinical Practice PsychiatryClinical Psychology Clinical Research Mental Health Care M.D. with Internship in Psychiatry & board certification + Psychoanalytic Training (optional) Ph.D. with research dissertation + clinical internship & licensure Psy.D with supervised practice instead of dissertation + clinical internship & licensure Work in university Work in clinic Work in hospital or clinic

4 What About Counseling? Psychiatry Problems with Living and Personality Disorders Major Axis disorders (mental illness) Clinical Psychology Mental Health Care Counseling (MFT & school) Social work and social service agencies Pastoral counseling Therapy for adjust- ment problems Therapy, diagnosis and testing, coordination of care in agencies/institutions Management of drug and other medical treatment, evaluation of organic factors, institutional care

5 Researchers vs Practitioners  Prior to WWII, academic psychology dominated the APA but that gradually changed.  First, clinical psychologists formed other organizations.  The balance shifted in 1962 when those in nonacademic (clinical) jobs outnumbered academics.  The APA was restructured in 1982 to include divisions to restore the status of experimental psychology.  Experimental psychologists formed the Psychonomic Society (1960) and later, the APS (1988).  The split represents different values & interests.

6 The Limited Role of Psychologists  Before the war, psychologists worked under psychiatrists (who had medical training) and psychologists were limited to administering tests.  There was little formal training except on-the-job.  During the war psychologists began providing therapeutic services because the need was so great.  The govt NIMH funded training of clinical psychologists.  Psychologists were recognized as expert diagnosticians and therapists, no longer restricted to a clinic setting or supervised by a psychiatrist.

7 Deaths in WWI

8 Deaths in WWII

9 Psychological Effects of WWII  40% of casualties of the Battle of Guadalcanal (1942) requiring evacuation were psychological ‘breakdowns.’  Of the first 1.5 million medical discharges, 45% were for psychiatric reasons.  At the end of the war, 44,000 people were hospitalized at the VA for mental disorders, compared to 30,000 for physical wounds.  Psychiatry could not meet the need for treatment.

10 Battle Stresses  Trying to understand what had contributed to the tremendous psychiatric casualty levels of this prolonged battle, Lidz (1946, p. 194) concluded that: “…there were many factors preying on the emotional stability of the men. The tension of suspense in one form or another was among the most serious; waiting to be killed, for death had begun to seem inevitable to many, and some walked out to meet it rather than continue to endure the unbearable waiting; waiting for the next air raid and the minutes of trembling after the final warning; waiting for the relief ships; waiting without acting through the jungle nights, listening for the sounds of Japs crawling, or for the sudden noise that might herald an attack; waiting even in sleep for the many warning sounds. The fears were numerous: of death, of permanent crippling, of capture and torture, of ultimate defeat in a war that was starting so badly... [as well as] fear of cowardice... and of madness.”  “In this first offensive battle of the war it became clear that the incapacitating wound could arrive with the mail from home... the loss of a girlfriend, the fight with parents” (Lidz, 1946, p. 195).

11 Examples of Shell Shock  Films of Shell Shock in WWI:  e=related e=related  US Army documentary on battle stress (1947):   General Patton slapping incident (from the movie Patton (1970): 

12 The Boulder Model  David Shakow headed the APA’s Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology (CTCP) in 1947.  71 professionals met at the Univ. of Colorado in Boulder to create a blueprint for training.  3 forms of expertise were needed:  Diagnosis – training in assessment was provided.  Therapy – a year-long internship was required.  Empirical research – a dissertation was required.  This “scientist-practitioner” approach was known as the Boulder Model

13 The Eysenck Study  In 1952, Hans Eysenck published “The Effects of Psychotherapy: An Evaluation” suggesting that traditional psychotherapy was ineffective.  He compared 5 psychoanalytic studies and 14 eclectic therapies with a control group of 2 studies of “neurotics” without treatment (from insurance records).  Improvement was 72% for controls compared to 44% for psychoanalysis and 64% for the eclectic therapies.  The methods were flawed but the study damaged the reputation of psychotherapy in the 50’s & 60’s.

14 Behavior Therapy  Behaviorists challenged psychoanalytic approaches by developing alternative therapies applying the results of their studies.  Hobart & Mowrer developed a treatment for bed- wetting involving a bell ringing when a sheet was wet, attacking deep-seated psychoanalytic explanations.  Eysenck developed “behavior therapy” & a journal.  Wolpe developed systematic desensitization, a behavior modification technique to treat phobias (irrational fears) based on learning theory.

15 Systematic Desensitization  He applied Mary Cover Jones’s approach of pairing a fear response with a pleasure response (counter-conditioning).  Cats were shocked when they approached food, then the fear response was replaced with food in rooms gradually changed to resemble the original room.  He used progressive relaxation to replace food when working with humans.  People develop an anxiety hierarchy then pair an imagined scene with relaxation until anxiety fades.

16 Other Behavioral Approaches  Token economies -- Skinner  Cognitive-behavior therapy  Ellis – rational emotive therapy  Beck – treatment for depression based on Seligman’s Learned Helplessness  Behavior modification – based on analysis of behavior and changing rewards.

17 Humanistic Psychology  Humanistic psychology rejected psychoanalysis and behaviorism.  Human behavior cannot be reduced to repressed biological instincts (Freud) or simple conditioning.  The past does not inevitably limit the future.  People are characterized by free will, a sense of responsibility and purpose, and a search for meaning in one’s life.  There is an innate tendency toward growth called self- actualization

18 Two Important Humanists Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers

19 Abraham Maslow  Maslow trained as an experimental psychologist studying dominance behavior in primates.  He was hired as faculty at Brooklyn College then moved to Brandeis University in 1951.  He focused on the nature of psychological health not disorders, examining the lives of self-actualized people (e.g., Ruth Benedict, Max Wertheimer).  He said self-actualizers see reality accurately, are independent and creative, have a strong moral code and see their work as more than a job.

20 Carl Rogers  After a very strict Protestant upbringing, Rogers studied theology at Union Seminary but switched to Columbia Teacher’s College and psychology.  Leta Hollingsworth encouraged his interest in child guidance.  He disliked psychoanalysis during his training.  He spent 12 years as staff psychologist at a child guidance clinic in Rochester NY, developing his own therapeutic approach.

21 Rogers in Academia  In 1940 Rogers was hired at Ohio State University where he wrote “Counseling & Psychotherapy” in 1942. Then he moved to the Univ. of Chicago.  He was elected president of the APA in 1946 signaling the shift from research to clinical psychology.  After 12 years in Chicago, he moved to the Univ. of Wisconsin, where his work was attacked.  In 1961 he moved to California, originally at the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute, then he founded the Center for the Study of the Person.

22 Client-Centered Therapy  Rogers rejected the need to delve into the client’s past but instead focused on creating a therapeutic relationship supporting growth.  The therapist must be honest with the client.  The therapist must be unconditionally accepting of the client’s worth (by virtue of being a human being).  The therapist must have empathy (understanding of the client’s viewpoint) modeled using reflective listening.  Rogers conducted research to test the effectiveness of his approach. The approach was popular.

23 The Vail Conference  The Boulder Model had difficulties:  Practitioners outside academia found little use for their research skills and felt they had insufficient clinical training.  Grad students weren’t getting good clinical training because academics had no time for practice.  Crane proposed a new degree – Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), emphasizing clinical training.  The Vail Conference (1973) set standards for new programs, legitimizing the degree.

24 Recent Changes in the Field  Clinical psychology has gained respect and distinguished itself from psychiatry.  After legal battles, clinical psychologist now have the right to:  Admit & release patients from mental hospitals.  Serve as expert witnesses in court.  Receive payments from insurance companies.  Disputes over prescription privileges continue – a few states allow it.

25 Remainder of Chapter  The remainder of this chapter will be discussed during lectures later in the quarter when the Hothersall chapters focus on testing and people such as Cattell.  The remainder of this Goodwin chapter will not be on Midterm 2, but may be on the Final exam.

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