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Democracy Movements Rebellious intellectuals. Chinese intellectuals Confucian literati  Defining and maintaining moral norms for the political leadership.

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Presentation on theme: "Democracy Movements Rebellious intellectuals. Chinese intellectuals Confucian literati  Defining and maintaining moral norms for the political leadership."— Presentation transcript:

1 Democracy Movements Rebellious intellectuals

2 Chinese intellectuals Confucian literati  Defining and maintaining moral norms for the political leadership as well as for the population at large  De facto autonomy in academia, arts, and popular culture, as long as they don’t challenge the leadership or the authority

3 Political-intellectual alliance A student of Confucius: ``One who studies well becomes an official” Advisors and spokespersons for the political leadership High positions in government, academia, the media, and the cultural sphere

4 In the People’s Republic Mao Zedong severed the traditional style of cooperation between the intellectuals and the government Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin resumed the tradition Party leaders patronized different groups of intellectuals

5 ``Democracy Wall” ( )

6 ``Big-character poster” was introduced into the state constitution during the Cultural Revolution Deng Xiaoping publicly approved many of the demands for ``reversal of verdicts” posted on Democracy Wall and published in unofficial journals

7 Wei Jingsheng’s posters  ``Fifth modernization: democracy” ``The hated old political system has not changed” ``Are not the people justified in seizing power from the overlords?” ``Do we want democracy or new dictatorship?”

8 Four cardinal principles In 1979, Deng Xiaoping set the boundary of political participation. Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought Socialist road People's democratic dictatorship Leadership by the Communist Party

9 Wei Jingsheng in U.S.

10 Student movement of From December 1986 to January 1987, thousands of college students in Shanghai, Beijing, and other cities protested No coherent focus of demands General Secretary Hu Yaobang was removed from power in 1987

11 Tian’anmen, 1989

12 Zhao Ziyang, 1989

13 Factors for re-stabilization Decade of economic reform Communist Party discipline Military loyalty Absence of civil society Schisms within student movement Student disdain for working class …

14 Patronized intellectuals At different times, different political leaders patronized different groups of intellectuals: Reformists Neo-authoritarianism Neo-conservatives …

15 Multi-dimension conservativereformist nationalist

16 Neo-authoritarianism Emphasis on economic modernization modeled on the “four little tigers of East Asia” A strong authoritarian regime guides rapid market reforms, economic decentralization, and the nurturing of a middle class

17 Older and neo-conservatives Re-institute more centralized controls over the economy and intellectual life Reverse the trend of opening up to the outside world Oppose the recruitment of private entrepreneurs into the Party

18 Intellectuals and the state Remonstrate with leaders to change their political ways Seek to join the political establishment Vanguard that speaks for others and tell the truth Reject political patronage Lack broad social basis


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