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Campden BRI © Campden BRI Recent successes and future challenges for scientific research in the UK wheat supply chain Dr Sam Millar Head of Cereals & Milling Campden BRI
© Campden BRI Wheat supply in the UK UK trading system based on named varieties for quality wheat Advances in plant breeding facilitated the move to high levels of home-grown wheat being used following UK’s entry to EU
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Changes in UK wheat supply Figures from Defra/HGCA/nabim Wheat supply (%)
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Wheat supply in the UK UK trading system based on named varieties for quality wheat Advances in plant breeding facilitated the move to high levels of home-grown wheat being used following UK’s entry to EU Further developments in genetic approaches have generated more targeted breeding approaches Opportunity recognised to apply these developments to end use quality rather than agronomy or plant physiology alone
Campden BRI © Campden BRI UK wheat supply in the global context Figures from FAOSTAT UK flour millers process ~5.5MT of wheat pa Added value in processing to retail ~£2300M in bread wheat
Campden BRI © Campden BRI The wheat supply chain in the UK Plant breeder Seed merchant Farmer Grain merchant Flour miller Baker Retailer Consumer
Campden BRI © Campden BRI The wheat supply chain in the UK Plant breeder Seed merchant Farmer Grain merchant Flour miller Baker Retailer Consumer Wheat is traded on agreed specifications generally based on named varieties Miller generally takes responsibility for sourcing appropriate wheat for defined bakery uses Supply chain requires value to be added at each stage Effective supply also relies on interactions along the chain
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Adding value to UK wheat – introducing new varieties North Wet (West) Winter wheat RL sites and regions 2005 Dry (East) Slide courtesy of HGCA/AHDB
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Adding value to UK wheat – introducing new varieties Evaluation and recommendation of new varieties carried out through British Society of Plant Breeders (BSPB) for National List (NL) and Crop Evaluation Limited (CEL) for Recommended List (RL) CEL is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Home-Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA/AHDB) CEL’s Wheat Crop Committee uses agronomic and end user data to determine which varieties should be recommended for growing in the UK
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Adding value to UK wheat – informing market choices The nabim wheat guide aids growers and traders to define markets for their wheat Varieties are characterised in groups depending on suitability for defined end-uses nabim’s Variety Working Party and Wheat Committee use test data from Campden BRI and nabim members to group varieties
Campden BRI © Campden BRI UK wheat research matrix – recent historic position Research type Funding mechanism/body Providers Private/near marketCommercial companies - Plant breeders - Millers - Bakers Industry/RTOs Applied/interpretive/ translational Defra, LINK, HGCAIndustry/RTOs/ academia Enabling/basic/ strategic Research councils, Defra/WGIN Academia
Campden BRI © Campden BRI August 2001 – January 2008 Total budget: £1.1M Campden BRI LINK Project FQS23 ‘Investigating wheat functionality through breeding and end use’
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Overall project aim Determine genetic control of wheat baking quality 800g loaves produced using a Spiral mixer Breeding line with good performance (objectively assessed) Breeding line with poor performance (objectively assessed) wPt-1036 wmc169 cfd30.1 wmc11 wPt-9369 barc57 wPt-7341 wPt-0714 gwm369 wmc264 wPt-8658 cfa2262 cfa2234 psp3047 wPt-1562 Locate genes on genetic map
Campden BRI © Campden BRI End use quality – examples of product variation for CBP bread Good performance Poor performance
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Slices analysed to measure dimensions and crumb structure C-Cell image analysis system Developed by Campden BRI Objective measurement of baked product slices Imaged under standard conditions
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Example quantitative trait loci (QTL) summary showing common responses across years End use response Linkage group
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Key genetic contributions to wheat functionality ChromosomeKuchel et al. (2006)Groos et al. (2007)Millar et al. (2008) 1A Dough rheology Protein content, loaf volume 1B Dough rheology Loaf volume, bread score Farinograph, loaf volume, crumb firmness, C-Cell 2B Protein content, Farinograph, loaf volume, crumb firmness, C-Cell 3A Loaf volume, crumb quality Protein content, loaf volume, bread score Protein content, Farinograph 6A Milling extraction rate, protein content Protein content, Farinograph 6B Crumb colour 7A Loaf volume, bread score Protein content, grain hardness, Farinograph, loaf volume, crumb colour, crumb firmness, C-Cell 7B Flour colourLoaf volume, C-Cell AustraliaFranceUK
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Conclusions The project has been a ‘once in a lifetime’ opportunity to make a step change in UK breeding for quality wheat The project team represents a successful integration of key sectors of the wheat supply chain, RTOs and academia The project is at the forefront of similar work globally and exceeds the scope and success of Australian and French initiatives The project has been a large undertaking but has achieved a very high measure of success The outputs from the project have considerable value both in terms of short to mid-term breeding exploitation as well as through the resource created for future work Having defined the targets, full exploitation now relies on characterising the genes within these targets – some applied but also some basic research required
Campden BRI © Campden BRI An integrated approach to stabilising HFN in wheat: screens, genes and understanding (HFN LINK SA326)
Campden BRI © Campden BRI The HFN problem HFN (Hagberg Falling Number) is the industry standard assessment for the main starch digesting enzyme in wheat Low HFN (high enzyme activity) results in poor mechanical slicing due to sticky crumb Enzyme activity is complex but generally low HFN results from wet weather at harvest HFN is a key parameter in meeting premium wheat specification Targeting stability in HFN is a high priority for end users and breeders Acceptable HFN Low HFN
Campden BRI © Campden BRI HFN project consortium INDUSTRY RAGT Nickerson-Advanta KWS Svalof Weibull Elsoms (Totals >95% UK wheat) Biogemma (Biotech) Industry levy/ collaborative funds HGCA (Growers) NABIM (Millers) RTOs/Institutes Campden BRI (Bakers) SWRI (Distillers) ACADEMIA Rothamsted Research University of Nottingham John Innes Centre (NIAB) Harper Adams CASH FUNDING BBSRC DEFRA HGCA ADVISERS Dr. John Lenton (ex LARS) Prof. Daryl Mares (U. Adelaide)
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Key features of HFN LINK project Success requires large multidisciplinary project Impossible to achieve other than through public-private partnership such as LINK Complementary skill set – breeders & public sector Addresses fundamental science issues as well as major commercial problem Focus on elite germplasm to ensure rapid exploitation Addresses key environmental & economic sustainability Issues Industrial leadership & focus throughout
Campden BRI © Campden BRI HFN LINK work programme WP1 – Analysis of Dormancy WP2 – Pre-maturity amylase (PMA) smart screen WP3 – PMA molecular characterisation WP4 – Candidate Genes WP5 – QTL identification & relation to candidate genes Project due to complete in 2010 – technical targets are on course – key challenge is to define targets at gene level
Campden BRI © Campden BRI UK wheat research matrix – current position Research type Funding mechanism/body Providers Private/near marketCommercial companies - Plant breeders - Millers - Bakers Industry/RTOs Applied/interpretive/ translational Defra, LINK, HGCA/AHDBIndustry/RTOs/ academia Enabling/basic/ strategic Research councils, BBSRC CLUBS, Defra/WGIN 2 Academia Technology Strategy Board
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Funding mechanisms are changing – what does this mean for UK wheat research? Funding for enabling research stable or expanding through use of BBSRC CLUBS Greater interaction with industry Still basic research primarily undertaken by academics WGIN 2 starting in 2009 Remains a valuable forum for plant breeders/academics Support from other funding routes such as LINK? Private funding stable but likely to face financial pressure in medium term Beneficial for companies involved but whole chain approaches unlikely Concern that solutions having a genetic base require scale of investment that far outweighs royalty income
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Funding mechanisms are changing – what does this mean for UK wheat research? Key weakness in immediate future is applied/interpretive/ translational research Projects including several sectors in supply chain have shown importance of such an approach Defra (IF0101) see adoption hurdles as significant problem for genetic research in UK LINK seen as fundamental to delivery mechanisms in WGIN LINK used very successfully for gearing on Levy board funding Changes in LINK structure are creating uncertainty for industry/RTOs and academics Current lack of an agri-food platform within TSB contributing to uncertainty
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Conclusions UK wheat supply chain is an integral part of the UK agri- food sector and adds significant value through application of technology It needs to build on recent successful whole chain approaches in research if it is to continue to apply innovation for producer, processor, retailer and consumer good Such approaches rely on interaction along the supply chain and between government and industry Developing and implementing a suitable platform to support integrated and applied research is key to delivery of innovation
Campden BRI © Campden BRI Acknowledgements Thanks are due to all members of the consortia for the LINK projects FQS 23 and SA326 I am grateful to Peter Jack (RAGT Seeds Ltd) for supply of slides and information used in this presentation
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