1 Social Indicators in Taiwan Bureau of Statistics, DGBAS JAO, Chih- Chien
Social Indicators in Taiwan 2 Contents 1. Progress of Social Indicator Development in Taiwan 2. People’s Life Indicator (PLI) compound index 3. Future Prospect 4. Conclusion
Social Indicators in Taiwan 3 1. Social Indicator Development in Taiwan — Past and Present
Social Indicators in Taiwan 4 (1) In Academia (2)In Government 1975198019841995 1996 2000 1975: CEPD worked on the Annual Social Welfare Indicators 1980:Academia Sinica organized 3 seminars on social indicators Taiwan ’ s Social Indicators development History 1979:DGBAS embarked on the Annual Social Indicator Report 1990:Compile “Social Indicator Compound Index” (11 areas 248 indicators) 1995:Compile “People’s Life Indicator compound index” (9 areas 55 indicators) Compile Social Indicator Annually
Social Indicators in Taiwan 5 2. People ’ s Life Indicator (PLI) compound index
Social Indicators in Taiwan 6 Social Indicators Compound index 1990- People’s Life Indicators (PLI) 1995- QoLQoL Social Indicators Yearbook 1979- The objective( mea suring overall social development) is too broad to explain and it has no direct relations with real feeling of life.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 7 Framework of PLI (2001 Revised) 9 Divisions 、 24 The Sub-divisions 、 47 Statistics Items 、 55 Statistical Indicators Objective Indicators Persons Aged 65 Years and Over Living with Relatives Abandoned Infants Rate Single Parent Rate Crude Divorce Rate Children Mistreated as % of Total Population under 12 Percentage of Population under 18 That Has Left Home Average Living Space for Each Person House Rent as % Family Disposable Income Subjective Indicators Satisfaction with Taking Care Of Parent Satisfaction with Rearing and Educating Children Satisfaction with Marriage Satisfaction with Relationship between Parent and Child Satisfaction with Living Space Satisfaction with Loan or Rent for House
Social Indicators in Taiwan 8 Composite Indices of PLI PLI Division ↓ Subdivision ↓ Statistics Items ↓ Objective indicators Survey on the Importance of PLI ↓ Importance Satisfication └─┬─┘ Demand ↓ Weight └────┬────┘ Composite Indices
Social Indicators in Taiwan 10 Comment Through constant improvements and consulting with academic scholars, the quality of social indicator in Taiwan has been advanced. However, since our society is changing fast, the social indicator system and compound indexes are lagging behind in integrating important social issues and related theoretical frameworks. That’s what we have to improve in future.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 11 3. Future Prospect
Social Indicators in Taiwan 12 OECD – Social Indicator Program Human Wellbeing Perceptions Good Health Warm Family … Optimal Leisure Social Indicators HealthFamily … Culture & Leisure Areas of concern
Social Indicators in Taiwan 13 (1) Areas of concern To determine areas of concern for a specific region, depends on the long-term observation of the local social conditions and development. It also relies on the application of social theories to formulate region-specific indicators. These should be modified or changed according to social development.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 14 Comparing “ Areas ” in TWN and AUS TaiwanAustralia 1.Population and Community1.Population 2.Social Participation2.Family and Community 3.Health 4.Education and Research4.Education and Training 5.Employment 6.Economic Conditions6.Economic resources 7.Public Safety7.Crime and Justice 8.Culture and Leisure 9.1 Living Environment9.Housing 9.2 Living Environment – (Human sustainable develop.) 10.Social Welfare 11.Trans. and Communication
Social Indicators in Taiwan 15 ABS - Key Questions of Social Indicators System What is Wellbeing? 1. Areas of concern Health; family and community; education and training;… What factors affect wellbeing and in what way? 2. Factors affect wellbeing Individual factors (disability; education attainment; income; life transitions). Social and other factors (social capital; transactions; social change; economic conditions) What are living conditions of population? Getting better or worse? 3. Social Indicators ‧ current wellbeing status; ‧ change in status over time ‧ direction of change What are pressing social issues that need to be informed? 4. Social Issues Poverty; unemployment; crime; homelessness; literacy (2) Factors affecting wellbeing
Social Indicators in Taiwan 16 Key Questions of Social Indicators System (Continued) What groups are at risk of disadvantage? Is the wealth of our nation distributed fairly? 5. Population groups aged; unemployed; low income; indigenous; children; retirees What units of measurement will result in effective social indicators? 6. Counting Units People; families; households; How can we organize our collection and analysis of data? 7. Statistical Frameworks Map the conceptual terrain; show relationships; identify gaps; classify counting units.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 17 ABS - Key Questions of Social Indicators System What is Wellbeing? 1. Areas of concern Health; family and community; education and training;… What factors affect wellbeing and in what way? 2. Factors affect wellbeing Individual factors (disability; education attainment; income; life transitions). Social and other factors (social capital; transactions; social change; economic conditions) What are living conditions of population? Getting better or worse? 3. Social Indicators ‧ current wellbeing status; ‧ change in status over time ‧ direction of change What are pressing social issues that need to be informed? 4. Social Issues Poverty; unemployment; crime; homelessness; literacy
Social Indicators in Taiwan 18 Factors affecting wellbeing Social Wellbeing Areas of concern Factors of influence Individual factors (disability; education attainment; income; life transitions). Social and other factors ( social capital ; transactions; social change; economic conditions). mutual trust, responsibility … ( increase in confidence for police and judicature, equality between genders, consensus in environmental protection, etc. )
Social Indicators in Taiwan 19 (3) Social Indicators In fact, any statistic, either simple or derived, may be viewed as a social indicator if it reflects a social issue or idea or tells you something about social conditions, [but] a guide to selecting effective social indicators is provided opposite. ～ ”Measuring Wellbeing: Framework for Australian Social Statistics ”
Social Indicators in Taiwan 20 Suitable Social Indicators reflective meaningful and sensitive to changes summary in nature able to disaggregated easily interpreted available as a time series
Social Indicators in Taiwan 21 OECD Social Indicators Model state-response model ， SR social context-status-response model ， CSR
Social Indicators in Taiwan 22 Definition (biggest concerns) Social Shock 921 Earthquake (Taiwan,1999) 911 Terrorist attack (NY,2001) Social Movement Gender equality Improves areas such as family, job, income, social order and education Gender Equality in Employment Law Pay For Housemakers Law (4) Social Issues
Social Indicators in Taiwan 23 4. Conclusions Social indicators development in Taiwan for the past two decades greatly contributes to the depiction and interpretation of social circumstances. Future job of social indicators in Taiwan is to develop its own theoretical framework by learning from the experiences of advanced countries, and adjusting them according to its social conditions.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 24 4. Conclusions (Cont.) The government must continue its cooperation with the academia to update theories, to improve quality and to examine functions so as to maintain the flexibility and continuous progress of social indicators. With all these efforts, social indicators will be able to truly depict the society and faithfully disclose the status of well-being.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 25 Comments welcome Topics for discussion: 1.The latest trends and developments of social indicators. 2.What kind of social indicators are needed to reveal social development in the future.
Social Indicators in Taiwan 26 The end Thank you