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Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan Lien-Siang Chou Professor, Institute of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University Biology,

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Presentation on theme: "Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan Lien-Siang Chou Professor, Institute of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University Biology,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan Lien-Siang Chou Professor, Institute of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, National Taiwan University Biology, National Taiwan University Founder, Taiwan Cetacean Society Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan

2 NTU Lien Siang Chou What are cetaceans? Cetaceans= whales + dolphins (porpoise) –Difference between whales & dolphins? Difference from Fish? –Morphology… –Physiology… –Reproduction… 2 Hector’s Dolphin Human Orca Blue Whale Humpback Sperm Whale

3 3 Wiki Chris huh

4 4 What are Cetaceans? Order Cetacea 鯨目 Suborder Mysticeti, –Baleen whales 鬚鯨亞目, 15 spp Suborder Odontoceti, –Toothed whales 齒鯨亞目, 70 spp

5 Order Cetacea 鬚鯨亞目 鬚鯨亞目 (Suborder Mysticeti ) Foraging tool: baleen 齒鯨亞目 齒鯨亞目 (Suborder Odontoceti) Foraging tool: teeth Flickr Patrick Keogh Flickr TooFarNorth

6 Diet trace of tooth whales Academia Sinica Wang, Ming-Chih

7 Fish ear bones under microscope Species identification Body length estimation Foraging water depth Academia Sinica Wang, Ming-Chih

8 Baleen whale has two blow holes Toothed whale has one blow hole Flickr zorankovacevic Flickr toniluca

9 How cetaceans understand their world ? By eyes? By sound? Bottlenose dolphin Flickr Stacy Lynn Baum

10 Echolocation pathways Wiki Emoscopes

11 Types of cetacean sound ( 糙齒海豚 ) Rough toothed dolphin Pulsed type ( 糙齒海豚 ) Rough toothed dolphin Whistle, Unpulsed type NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Spectrum- axis Y =Freqeuncy of sound (kHz) ; axis X= Length of sound (second).

12 Song structure of Humpback whale’s sound NTU Lien-Siang Chour. Redraw by NTU 王有禎 based on the data from Peter G. H. Evans. 1987. The Natural History of Whales & Dolphins. Facts On File Publications.

13 How intelligent are cetaceans ? Indicators Brain structures Learning/communication behaviors

14 Brain and Body Weight AnimalBrain Weight (grams) Body Weight (tonnes) Brain Weight / Body Weight Human (Homo)15000.072.1% Asiatic elephant (Elephas)75005.000.15% Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops)16000.170.94% Common dolphin (Delphinus)8400.110.76% Pilot whale (Globicephala)26703.500.076% Orca (Orcinus)56206.000.094% Cow (Bos)5000.60.08% Sperm whale (Physeter)782037.000.021% Fin whale (Balaenoptera)693090.000.008% Source: by Mark Carwardine, 1999. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, 2 nd edn. Checkmark Books.

15 The Brain Human Bottlenose Dolphin Cow Cerebral Hemisphere Cerebellum Brain Stem NTU Lien-Siang Chou. Redraw by NTU 王有禎 based on the data from Mark Carwardine. 1999. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, 2 nd edn. Checkmark Books.

16 Learning types of dolphins CommunicationImitationLanguage Tool using Creation (planned, innovative behavior) Flickr Scott the Hobo Flickr Bill Strong Flickr Gunrou

17 Learning in Language structure L. M. Herman great learning research!! University of Hawaii (movie) (movie) Video links: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jz3sQsTE5tA&hd=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kH68iL5SL3g&feature=related&hd=1 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

18 18 Uniqueness of cetaceans Extremely low fertility How many offspring can a female cetacean leave for her whole life? How many offspring can a female cetacean leave for her whole life? High intelligence High cognitive ability

19 19 Species name (by number) No. of Offspring per female NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

20 20 How many Cetacean species in Taiwan ? Order Cetacea 鯨目 30 species recorded in Taiwan –Baleen whales (7) –Toothed whales (23)

21 21 This work is licensed by Forestry Bureau,Council of Agriculture Execultive Yuan, Taiwan for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only.

22 Order Cetacea 鯨目 Suborder Mysticeti 鬚鯨亞目 Family Balaenidae 露脊鯨科 0 sp Family Neobalaenidae 小露脊鯨科 0 sp Family Eschrichtiidae 灰鯨科 0 sp Family Balaenopteridae 鬚鯨科 8 sp

23 Suborder Odontoceti Toothed whales 齒鯨亞目 (23 sp) Family Physeteridea 抹香鯨科 1 sp Family Kogiidae 小抹香鯨科 2 sp Family Ziphiidae 喙鯨科 4 sp Family Phocoenidae 鼠海豚科 1 sp Family Delphinidae 海豚科 15 sp Family Monodontidae 一角鯨科 0 sp Superfamily Platanistoidea 淡水豚超科 0 sp

24 24 Common species in eastern waters 瑞氏 ( 花紋 ) 海豚 Risso’s dolphin 熱帶斑海豚 Pantropical spotted dolphin 弗氏海豚 Fraser’s dolphin 飛旋海豚 Spinner dolphin NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

25 25 虎鯨 抹香鯨 大翅鯨 Humpback whale Killer whale Sperm whale Famous whales in eastern waters NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

26 Updated cetacean species diversity in Taiwan Boat survey: confirmed 23 sp Stranding record: confirmed 27 sp.  in total, 31 species confirmed!  36% of the world cetacean species 26

27 江豚(露脊鼠海豚) Finless porpoise 中華白海豚 Chinese white dolphin The treasures in the Taiwan Strait ! Wiki Alessio Marrucci NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

28 28 Recent focus Chinese white dolphin : Sousa chinensis Recent focus - The endangered population Chinese white dolphin : Sousa chinensis NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

29 Threats to Chinese white dolphins in Taiwan Habitat loss & degradation Habitat loss & degradation Chemical pollution Chemical pollution Fishery impact Fishery impact Noise/transportation impact Noise/transportation impact NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

30 30 Life history 6 dev. stages Sexual mature at 9-10 yr old 9-10 yr old Calving interval: 3-4yr 3-4yr Life span, 30-40 yr <8 mon <18 mon NTU Lien-Siang Chou

31 Status of Sousa population in Taiwan IUCN Red List IUCN red listIUCN red list: Critically Endangered 2008.8.29 Not Evaluated (NE) (Evaluated) Data Deficient (DD) (Adequate data) Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) WW: Near Threatened (NT) TW: Critically Endangered (CR) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

32 Home range: –North: Miaoli –South: Tainan Water depth: –Ave: 7.6 m (~32m) – 95% < 15 m Distance from land: –ave1.4 km (~ 6 Km) –95% < 3 km ** Two hot area NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

33 Population size of Sousa in Taiwan Photo Identification  82-88Ind Calf & Juvenile = about 10%  Estimate 90-97 individuals Side LR2 No. adults 6973 Range : 82 – 88 Individuals Quasimodo NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

34 Marine protected area 7 MPA in China Taiwan 75,000 ha Xiamen 33,088 ha Hong Kong 1,200 ha PRE 46,000 ha NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

35 The change of Cetacean status in Taiwan A turning point-- Spring 1990 35

36 36 Whaling industry off coastal Taiwan during1913-1967, but offshore factory Whaling stopped in 1982. The above three photos are licensed by Mr. Cheng-yu Yu, Taiwan for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only.

37 37 A Critical event A Critical event Spring 1990, Penghu Islands ( Pescadores Is.) “Earth Trust” NGO from USA filmed dolphin slaughtering, and released film in Hawaii.  International conservation pressure on Taiwan government http://www.earthtrust.org/penghu.html

38 38 Turning Point August 1990: cetaceans were added to the Protected Species List under the Wildlife Conservation Act (passed in 1989).

39 39 Development of Stranding Response Program 1. Early stage: 1990~1993 Ocean World, Taipei, Richard ChenOcean World, Taipei, Richard Chen 2. Stage:1994~1999 NTU university, Chou’s teamNTU university, Chou’s team 3. Stage:1999~2007 Taiwan Cetacean Society, coordinatingTaiwan Cetacean Society, coordinating 4. Stage: 2008~ County governments play more active roles.

40 40 Development of stranding responding program Stage II: Many scholars and volunteers in diverse fields of study started joining collaboration or conservation action. Many scholars and volunteers in diverse fields of study started joining collaboration or conservation action. TCSN ( Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network ) was formed in 1996. TCS ( Taiwan Cetacean Society ) was founded in 1998.

41 41 Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network (TCSN) founded in Nov 1996. Supervision Council of Agriculture Local governments Coordination Taiwan Cetacean Society Execution Event response Event response Assistance: Police, Coast Guard Divisions of Rescue, Release, Research, Rehabilitation, Medical treatment, includingoff shore islands Rehabilitation, Medical treatment, including off shore islands Source: TSCN website constructed by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest BureauTSCN website

42 42 Development of stranding response program Stage III: Stranding project & coordination shifted to TCS (Taiwan cetacean society) public education programs (many symposia, workshops) were held with frequent media reports  the awareness of cetacean conservation in Taiwan has rapidly improved.

43 Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network Central competent authority : Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan Local competent authority: county or city government Cetacean Stranding database Rehabilitation Hospital National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium Taijiang rescure center(NCKU) Institute of Animal and Plant Health. Penghu Aquariu Yehliu Ocean World Rescue Team Coast Guard Administration Institute of Animal and Plant Health. Taiwan Cetacean Society International Headquarters S.A.R,Taiwan Local Fire Department Other NGOs Research Team National Taiwan U National Cheng Kung U National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium National Sun Yat-sen U National Pingtung University of Science and Technology Source: TSCN website constructed by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest BureauTSCN website Reporting

44 TCSN Cetacean stranding data bank http://tcsn.whale.org.tw/index.php 1994 至 2010 年 共有 627 個擱淺事件 至少包括 27 種鯨豚 每年約 40 件 Source: TSCN website constructed by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest BureauTSCN website TSCN website constructed by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest Bureau

45 45 Typical stranding pattern

46 46 NTU Lien-Shiang Chou Lab Annual variation of cetacean stranding events (n=473 reports) Annual variation of cetacean stranding events (n=473 reports) TCSN founded Rate= 10.4 rpt/yr Rate= 44.4 rpt/yr Total annual stranding rate=30/yr

47 47 19/7-13/8, 2005 23 strandings 23 strandings Is it atypical ? NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

48 48 –Comparison in stranding frequency –Comparison in species composition About 90% are deep diving species ! –Postmortem examination Some of them with obvious bubble-lesion of internal organs.  conclusion: Atypical stranding!  keeping long term work is crucial!

49 49 Live stranding & Rehabilitation

50 50 The percentage of live (n=208) and dead (n=265) stranding events in Taiwan, 1990~2005. NTU Lien-Shiang Chou Lab

51 51 The first released dolphin A male Risso’s dolphin, The first released dolphin A male Risso’s dolphin, A male Risso’s dolphin stranded in June 2000, and rehabilitated for 64 days. (No. 16) In September 2000, Taiwan Cetacean Society released this animal.

52 52 The first released dolphin A male Risso’s dolphin, Jun-Sep 2000 (No. 16) NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

53 Whale watching development in Taiwan 53

54 54 First whale-watching boat, Sea-Whale, started her cruises in the summer of 1997 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

55 55 The growth of whale watching in Taiwan 1997 , one boats at Shihti,Hualien 1998 , >4 boats 1999 , >12 boats 2000 , >25 boats 2001 , >33 boats 2003, >32 boats 2006, ~ 26 boats

56 56 The numbers of whale-watching boats, the harbors and oceanic area for whale-watching tourism in Taiwan (2003). : Range for cruising routes : Major oceanic area for whale watching Hua-lien port : 7 Ao-di port : 2 Wu-shi port : 10 Su-ao port : 5 Cheng-gong port : 2 Shi-ti port : 4 Jia-lan port : 2 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

57 57 The growth of whale watching in Taiwan 1997 , one boats At Shihti, Hualien 1998 , >4 boats 1999 , >12 boats 2000 , >25 boats 2001 , >33 boats … Now, ~26 boats One of the fastest growing enterprise in the world (IFAW) 2001 19961998 200 0 200 2 200 4 200 6 0 50 100 150 200 250 300350 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

58 Boat ticket price 1997: 1500 NT 2000: ca 1000 NT 2003: ca 800 NT Present: ca 600 NT 58

59 The average expenditure of whale-watching cruises and of whole trips.(2003) Expense of cruise ticket Total cost for a trip Wu-shi port 8053991 Hua-lien port 8706047 Shi-ti port 7753906 Cheng-gong port 7745304 Jia-lan port 8348511 Mean (US$) 808 (24) 4752 (142) 1500NT(1997)  1200  1000  800  600 NT NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

60 60 賞鯨遊程總花費 (1997 to 2003) 2003 年賞鯨遊客人數近 24 萬人,引進相關收益高達 11 億台幣。 19971998 199 9 200 0 200 1 200 2 0 6 9 1215 200 3 3 200 4 200 5 200 6 200 7 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

61 Potential problem is growing! Potential harassment to cetaceans Severe business competition  Severe business competition  low price, low quality low price, low quality 61

62 62 The Impact on cetacean behaviors The Impact on cetacean behaviors Spinner dolphins were the major target in Ilan waters Group usually head out around 10-12 am Distance from Land increased Swimming speed increased Diving pattern changed.

63 63 W W regulations in Taiwan No Law to follow, could only be listed as guidelines, or notifications Enforcement is limited, almost none.

64 64 Facing great Challenging now! Ticket price drop, economic recession WW tour quality drop Sustainable of cetacean populations?

65 65 Current strategies -- for help in the management and control of industry market Eco-labeling * However, these actions have also invited some complains from the operators TEIA 黃苙詒

66 66 Whale-watching Award Whale-watching Award 2003, Among 33 boats, 8 boat owners have applied. (application fee=US$ 1300) 4 boats passed assessment process – 2 Awards given in May 2004 – 2 Awards given in June 2005 –Re-application motivation is low Now, there are 8 boats with Awards.

67 http://whalewatching.org.tw/tw/ NASA World Wind JAVA SDK; Edited by 王有禎 Source: Taiwan Cetacean Society Whale Watching websiteTaiwan Cetacean Society Whale Watching website Cheng-gong port Shi-ti port Hua-lien port Wu-shi port

68 Major Whale-watching regions of the world Wiki Crates Edited by 王有禎

69 69 Whale watching could play a pivotal role in transforming the relation between the humans and the cetacean  from Consumptive Exploitation to Co-existence This work is licensed by Mr. 游文志 for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only.

70 70 E N D !

71 Copyrights WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Wiki Chris huh http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cetaceans.svg 2011/9/27 visited Flickr Patrick Keogh http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_keogh/3990016840/sizes/l/in/photo stream/ 2011/9/28 visited Flickr TooFarNorth http://www.flickr.com/photos/toofarnorth/5590138967/sizes/l/in/photostr eam/ 2011/9/28 visited Academia Sinica Wang, Ming-Chih

72 72 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source Academia Sinica Wang, Ming-Chih Flickr toniluca http://www.flickr.com/photos/toniluca/2223507438/sizes/o/in/photostre am/ 2011/9/27 visited Flickr zorankovacevic http://www.flickr.com/photos/jantjesmit/287116990/sizes/l/in/photostrea m/ 2011/9/27 visited Copyrights

73 73 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source Flickr Stacy Lynn Baum http://www.flickr.com/photos/stacylynn/3188843064/sizes/l /in/photostream/ 2011/9/28 visited Wiki Emoscopes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Toothed_whale_sound_pro duction.png 2011/9/28 visited NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Pulse type sound NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Whisle, unpulse type sound NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Copyrights

74 74 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou. Data from Peter G. H. Evans. 1987. The Natural History of Whales & Dolphins. Facts On File Publications. NTU Lien-Siang Chou. Data from Mark Carwardine. 1999. Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises, 2 nd edn. Checkmark Books. Flickr Gunrou http://www.flickr.com/photos/gnurou/3962386904/sizes/l/in/photostrea m/ 2011/10/20 visited Flickr Scott the Hobo http://www.flickr.com/photos/dapperscoo/166798613/sizes/l/in/ph otostream/ 2011/9/28 visited Flickr Bill Strong http://www.flickr.com/photos/bstrong/150196541/sizes/o/in/photo stream/ 2011/9/28 visited NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Copyrights

75 75 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab This work is licensed by Forestry Bureau,Council of Agriculture Execultive Yuan, Taiwan for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and GET does not have the authorization right. NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Copyrights

76 76 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Wiki Alessio Marrucci http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FinlessPorpoise5.jpg 2012/04/12 NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab

77 77 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab This work is from IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/static/categories_criteria_3_1 and used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 The "Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for OpenCourseWare 2009 (http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/sites/default/files/10-305-OCW- Oct29.pdf)" by A Committee of Practitioners of OpenCourseWare in the U.S. The contents are based on Section 107 of the 1976 U.S. Copyright Acthttp://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/sites/default/files/10-305-OCW- Oct29.pdf

78 78 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab This work is licensed by Mr. Cheng-yu Yu for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and GET does not have the authorization right.

79 79 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source This work is from TCSN which is established by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest Bureau http://tcsn.whale.org.tw/and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GEThttp://tcsn.whale.org.tw/ This work is from TCSN which is established by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest Bureau http://tcsn.whale.org.tw/and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GEThttp://tcsn.whale.org.tw/ This work is from TCSN which is established by Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Forest Bureau http://tcsn.whale.org.tw/and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 50 by GEThttp://tcsn.whale.org.tw/ NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Copyrights

80 80 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab Copyrights

81 81 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source NTU Lien-Siang Chou Lab TEIA 黃苙詒 http://e-info.org.tw/node/24186 2011/11/18 visited Copyrights

82 82 WorkLicenseAuthor/Source This work is from Taiwan Cetacean Society Whale Watching website and used subject to the fair use doctrine of the Taiwan Copyright Act Article 52 & 65 by GETTaiwan Cetacean Society Whale Watching website NASA World Wind JAVA SDK; Edited by 王有禎 http://goworldwind.org/demos/ 2011/10/3 visited Wiki Crates; Edited by 王有禎 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:World_map_blank_without_border s.svg 2011/10/20 visited This work is licensed by Mr. 游文志 for the use of “Biodiversity & Conservation of Cetaceans in Taiwan” only. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned creator and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyrights


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