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The Triple Helix and the Dynamics of Innovation Henry Etzkowitz Science Policy Institute State University of New York

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Presentation on theme: "The Triple Helix and the Dynamics of Innovation Henry Etzkowitz Science Policy Institute State University of New York"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Triple Helix and the Dynamics of Innovation Henry Etzkowitz Science Policy Institute State University of New York

2 ASSISTED LINEAR start from research question in discipline Transfer mechanisms: e.g. Incubator, TTO applied research product development REVERSE LINEAR start from problem in industry or larger society find technology; adapt for solution conduct new research Interactive Innovation: Initiatives from both sides

3 The Land Grant Tradition Bottom-Up pressure for government to act Founding of University of Connecticut in 1816 States Rights Activists leave US Congress in 1862 Morill Act “Land Grant” passed: joint federal/state support for universities that put knowledge to use MIT founded in 1864 with 1/3 of Massachusetts land grant 2000: Land grants compete for basic research funds

4 The Triple Helix Model Movement From Separate or Encompassing to Overlapping Institutional Spheres Taking the role of the other e.g., university forming firms From bilateral to trilateral interactions: “double helixes” (university-industry; government- university; industry-government to “triple helixes U-I-G

5 Statist Triple Helix Government IndustryAcademia

6 Statist Triple Helix Government dominates other spheres Top-down bureaucratic co-ordination Large project mentality Industry: national champions University: primarily teaching institution

7 State IndustryAcademia Laissez-faire Triple Helix

8 Laissez-Faire Triple Helix Separate Spheres University: basic research and human resource provider Industry: Firms linked by market Government: limited to addressing market failures Individualistic mentality; heroic entrepreneur Interface Units Across strong boundaries

9 Relation of State to Corporations Dartmouth College Case: 1819 Supreme Court Decision limited right of government to change university charter Subsequently extended to corporations

10 State IndustryAcademia Indirect Industrial Policy: the Federal Government Goes Through the University to Reach Industry;

11 State Industry Academia Civil Society is the Foundation Stone of the Triple Helix

12 State IndustryAcademia Hybrid Organizations and Actions e.g. Incubator Movements

13 Transition to Overlapping Spheres Multiple Bi-lateral Collaborations Industry: Strategic Alliances; Co-opetiton Joint Research Centers (U-I-G) Conflict of Interest Controversies over Multiple Institutional and Individual roles: e.g. University: teaching, research, third mission

14 University Missions The First Academic Revolution late 19th century; ongoing The Research University research groups and centers The Second Academic Revolution 20th century; ongoing The Entrepreneurial University new firms and networks

15 Bi-Evolution of University Missions Teaching: Individuals and Organizations Research: Individual and Group Economic and Social Development: Companies and Region

16 The Changing Role of the University Opposition to federal research funding dissipated by World War II experience Technology Transfer Universalized: The Bayh Dole Act of 1980 University Foundations create organizational flexibility The university as venture capitalist

17 Regional Innovation Models Regional Innovation System: All elements in place Regional Innovation Environment: Lacking some elements- gaps

18 Regional Development Strategies 1. Improve the Business Climate lower taxes 2. Incentivize relocation Attract firms from other regions Zero Sum Game 3. Form new firms based on knowledge Utilize academic resources Increasing Returns

19 Regional Innovation Organizer (RIO) Takes the leadership role in transition: New England Council: university led Joint Venture Silicon Valley: industry led VINNOVA: government led

20 Knowledge Space Universities and Research Institutes Underutilized Potential Research Projects with economic and social relevance

21 Consensus Space Fora to Generate Ideas and Strategies Triple Helix Meeting Place e.g. New England Council; Niteroi Technopole

22 Innovation Space Realizing Goals Organizational Experiments Invention of Venture Capital Firm

23 Triple Helix Venture Capital Creative Destruction Creative Reconstruction Cyclical VC: follow the business cycle Countercyclical VC: works in the downturn and the upturn; early and later stages of firm formation

24 The Venture Capital Cycle (SSBGG) Stasis: fear to invest Shortfall: unable to do follow-on rounds Balance: ability to act at all stages and phases Gluttony: downstream movement Gap: shortage of early stage funds

25 The venture paradox can be resolved through venture initiatives across the Triple Helix and as hybrid public/private entities

26 Array of Venture Capitals Private Public Foundation Community Development Angels Corporate University

27 Innovation in Innovation Invention of new organizational mechanisms From The Endless Frontier to the Endless Transition

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