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How About A Career In Veterinary Pathology? Opportunities in: Diagnostic Labs Academia Industry Government From the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.

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Presentation on theme: "How About A Career In Veterinary Pathology? Opportunities in: Diagnostic Labs Academia Industry Government From the American College of Veterinary Pathologists."— Presentation transcript:

1 How About A Career In Veterinary Pathology? Opportunities in: Diagnostic Labs Academia Industry Government From the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

2 We are looking for some excellent veterinarians who would like to specialize in an exciting field!

3 Veterinary pathologists study everything from live animals to proteins Live animals Diseased organs Cells Organelles Chromosomes Molecules

4 Emma Cantor, daughter of Dr. Glenn Cantor, contemplates her career path during a necropsy on a musk-ox in Palmer, Alaska.

5 Diagnostic Veterinary Pathology  Finding the causes of diseases in animals of all species  Duties of a diagnostic pathologist  Diagnosis (for one animal or a group)  Prognosis – predict the outcome and report risks to animals and humans  Written report to primary clinician

6 Diagnostic Veterinary Pathology Maylee Peterson, CVT, and Dr. Donna Hertzke work in a large diagnostic laboratory, helping hundreds of veterinarians, animals, and owners every day.

7 A diagnostic veterinary pathologist will be critical in determining what is causing disease in these animals, and whether there is a risk to humans handling the animals or consuming the milk or meat.

8 Divisions of Diagnostic Veterinary Pathology  Clinical Pathology  Cytology – analysis of cells in tissue or body fluid  Clinical chemistry – body fluid analysis  Hematology – blood cell analysis  Microbiology – agent identification

9 Dr. Laura Andrews and Cindy Frey, MLT, discuss fluid analysis preparation.

10 Cytology slide: Cells from a lymph node cancer Blood smear: Lymph node cancer cells in blood (leukemia)

11 Divisions continued  Anatomic Pathology  Necropsy (Autopsy) – gross (naked eye) and microscopic examination of whole animals  Surgical Pathology – gross and microscopic examination of biopsies (tissue removed from living animals)

12 Horse with a melanoma of the eyelid Microscopic melanoma The tumor is removed by a veterinary clinician and submitted to a diagnostic laboratory. The diagnosis is made by the pathologist.

13 Training Required  Bachelor’s degree or equivalent – 2 to 4 years  DVM or equivalent – 4 years  Residency training or other advanced training in veterinary pathology – 3 - 5 years  ACVP Board Certification in Anatomic and/or Clinical Pathology (achieved by passing an examination)

14 Dr. Betsy Aird and Dr. James Carpenter examine cytology slides together on a double headed training/consulting microscope.

15 Employment Opportunities  Private diagnostic laboratory  State or provincial diagnostic laboratory  Academic institution – veterinary or medical school  Contract laboratory (laboratory for assessing product safety)  Zoo  Other agency serving the needs of wildlife and/or the environment

16 Veterinary diagnostic laboratories use state of the art equipment. Stan Krogman, MT, and CellDyn 5300

17 Diagnostic veterinary pathologists can work for zoos and wildlife agencies. They play an important role in protecting endangered species.

18 Rewards of Being a Diagnostic Veterinary Pathologist  Your work is critical to quality veterinary care; you will be a key team player.  Your contributions will benefit a very large number of animals and humans every day.  You could be the first to recognize a new disease or public health hazard.  You will embark on a lifetime of learning and face exciting new challenges daily.

19 Veterinary pathologists discovered that the West Nile virus had invaded North America. Critical work was done at the Bronx Zoo.

20 Veterinary pathologists at Colorado State Diagnostic Lab are studying Chronic Wasting Disease in deer and elk, a disease that has spread to several states. The disease is caused by prions similar to those which cause Mad Cow Disease.

21 Rewards continued  You can build on the vast knowledge you acquired in veterinary school, becoming extremely knowledgeable in the diseases of numerous animal species.  Or you can specialize in one area of veterinary pathology (for example, diseases of fish, or diseases of the skin).  You can work in a large laboratory with many pathologists.  Or you can perform some or all of your duties at home.

22 Diagnose disease in all species.

23 Or specialize. Dr. Sherman Jack is an expert in catfish pathology, of economic importance in southern Gulf states in the USA.

24 Work in a large diagnostic laboratory. The workload is shared and it is easy to consult with others before releasing the results.

25 Because Dr. Maron Calderwood Mays works for two veterinary diagnostic labs in different states, she does most of her work at home.

26 Diagnostic veterinary pathology is often a stepping stone to other career choices in veterinary pathology. Academia Industry Government

27 Careers in Academia College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University

28 Careers in Academia Combinations of: Teaching, Research, Service

29 Careers in Academia  Traditionally, all three areas  Many positions now combine only two areas  Research and diagnostics, or  Research and teaching, or  Teaching and diagnostics  Or, only research

30 Training required for an academic career  DVM  Pathology residency and ACVP boards  PhD (recommended) (required if you choose a research career)  Post-doctoral training (recommended if you choose a research career as a principal investigator)  Note: Post-DVM graduate students and post-docs are paid much better than traditional graduate students

31 Types of institutions Veterinary schools, medical schools, research universities Dr. Krista La Perle, a veterinary pathologist at Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, and Rockefeller University, works on genetically engineered mice to identify genes involved with human diseases.

32 Research  Pathology training teaches flexibility, broad approach to problem-solving, ability to learn new techniques and ways of thought Molecular Biology Toxicology Histo- pathology Physiology Infectious Diseases Nutrition Fields that aren’t invented yet

33 Research  Research by people with comparative pathology training includes a wide variety of fields: molecular biology, toxicology, infectious diseases, physiology  Principal investigator or collaborator  Funded by government or private grants

34 Research  You can pick your own field of expertise and research “ Academia allows you to follow reason wherever it may lead to ” - Dr. Patrick Caplazi

35 Dr. Peter Doherty, Nobel laureate and veterinary pathologist Peter C. Doherty, BVSc, PhD, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee A T killer cell (upper right) attaching to and sensing the antigens on a target cell. If the target cell carries the correct antigens fitting the receptor of this particular T cell, the "kiss of death" will follow: the target cell will be destroyed.

36 Teaching Small group case-based problem solving

37 Teaching Veterinary students Lectures, small groups (clinical rotations, case simulations), or one-on-one Professor of the Year stresses love of medicine, love of life Monday, December 11, 2000 SEATTLE POST-INTELLIGENCER STAFF As a child, Steve Hines would crawl under houses to pluck out feral felines he heard crying for food. So it wasn't surprising that his love for animals led him to become a veterinarian. And when he was a doctoral student, he realized that solving actual problems, rather than answering multiple-choice questions, made it fun to learn how to treat sick animals…. Dr. Steve Hines, Professor of Pathology

38 Teaching  Pathology residents  Small classes, lots of one-on-one  Graduate students  Research mentoring, small classes  Undergraduates  Lectures, research mentoring Dr. Terry McElwain and Dr. Esther Trueblood

39 Service  Many universities are associated with state diagnostic laboratories  Diagnostic laboratories also serve veterinary teaching hospitals  Laboratory animals from the university research community Cryptosporidia in the intestine of a foal

40 Rewards  Highly diverse and challenging work “Academia offers a nice balance. Truly significant research that helps people and animals is the 20-year plan that makes my life meaningful. But I also need day-to-day immediate satisfaction--solving a case in the diagnostic lab or teaching a student.” -Dr. Glenn Cantor

41 Rewards  Teaching smart students is fun, keeps you constantly thinking, has a huge impact on young people’s lives  Service has short-term satisfactions and rewards – solving problems for real animal owners and practitioners

42 Rewards  Research has long-term satisfactions and rewards – discovering something important!  Opportunity to be truly creative  It’s intellectually exhilarating to have smart colleagues who challenge one’s ideas and push for further accomplishments.

43 Academic environment can be very pleasant Rafting on the Salmon River, near Washington State University Lake Alice at the University of Florida. A good place to watch alligators and egrets or to go sailing or swimming. Necropsy students show prowess with their knives by carving pumpkins

44 Career Opportunities in Industry  Play a key role in discovery and development of new drugs for major health problems  Human diseases  Animal diseases Cancer DiabetesMalaria HIV Asthma Alzheimer’s Heart disease And more

45 Career Opportunities in Industry Type of business  Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology (focusing on treatment of humans)  Small chemical entities, proteins, vaccines, gene therapy products  Regulated by FDA and its international counterparts  Chemical and agrochemical industry  Regulated by EPA

46 Veterinary pathologists participate in the short-term and long-term animal testing of drug development. The contribution by pathologists is key in the selection process and development of drug candidates.

47 Types of business (cont.)  Animal health  Medicines and vaccines for food and companion animals  Regulated by FDA  Food and consumer products  Regulated by FDA  Contract Research Organizations (CROs)  Provide service in all aspects of work for industry

48 Dr Judith Saik, a pathologist working on the development of animal health products, at a research farm with animals that are on study there.

49 Careers in Industry Type of activities  Safety assessment of compounds/products  Studies required by regulations  Conducted under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)  Investigative pathology  Determination of pathogenesis in support of studies  Earlier and faster prediction of toxic effects  Use of molecular biological tools  Integration of gene and protein expression with morphology and function

50 Laser capture microdissection Danielle Diaz, BS is identifying areas of interest for microdissection of a tissue section to be used for RNA recovery.

51 Microdissected tissue Hierarchical clustering of gene expression mRNA RNA isolation Microarray

52 Careers in Industry Type of activities (cont.)  Lead optimization  Assist in selection of best compound/product in a series, based on pathologic parameters  Research  Characterize animal models of diseases  Including transgenics and knockouts  Assess efficacy in animal models  Compound/product sponsorship  Participate in multidisciplinary development teams

53 Luciferase-based non-invasive imaging and microscopic localization of metastatic cells in oncology research Metastatic prostate cancer cells are demonstrated by imaging in knees and rib; microscopic section of rib.

54 Careers in Industry Species/specimens studied  Rodents  Mice (including transgenics, knockouts), rats  Non-rodents  Dogs, non-human primates, mini pigs, rabbits, guinea pigs, horses, cattle, chickens, fish  In vitro systems  Cultured specimens: cells, tissue slices, organs  Specimens from in vitro physiologic experiments

55 Light microscopy and ultrastructure of liver slice culture Crystalline and granular mitochondrial inclusions C and cup-shaped mitochondria

56 Careers in Industry  Clinical pathology  Hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry, cytopathology, laboratory instrumentation and methods, and quality control/quality assurance  Seek out patterns and correlations between laboratory data in treated and non-treated groups  Technical familiarity with wide range of modern instrumentation, laboratory principles, and statistics

57 Dr Laurie O’Rourke and Jill Omerza, MT are reviewing dot density plots of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical pathology: flow cytometry for immunophenotyping

58 Careers in Industry  Anatomic pathology  Recognize changes on gross, light microscopy, and ultrastructure  Ancillary methods include immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, laser applications (laser scanning microdissection, confocal microscopy), computerized morphometry  Participate in study design, study conduct, and data analysis

59 Paul Grosenstein, BS, EMT is working at the morphometry station using the KS400 system.

60 Immunohistochemical stains for B and T lymphocytes in spleen

61 Anatomic pathology - Transmission Electron Microscopy Dr. Natasha Neef reviews ultrastructural images taken by a Zeiss electron microscope using the Soft Imaging System software.

62 Careers in Industry Studies requiring specialized expertise  Reproductive toxicity  Staging of spermatogenesis  Immunopathology  Assessment of function/response  Phenotyping cells  Neurotoxicity  Detailed assessment of function and morphology of central and peripheral nervous system

63 Plastic embedded, Toluidine blue stained sections of peripheral nerve from a control animal and an animal with neuropathy

64 Three-dimensional reconstruction of MK801-induced neuronal degeneration in rat brain (red); ventricles (light green)

65 Careers in Industry Rewards  Be a key participant in the development of safe and innovative products that  Meet unmet medical needs  Increase agricultural productivity  Have positive impact on customers’ business and/or life  Constant learning, new scientific and intellectual opportunities

66 Rewards (cont.) Compared to general veterinary practice:  Opportunity to manage or influence others without being responsible for a small business  Flexible hours provide a family friendly environment  Ample resources for scientific investigation  Great diversity of workforce assures an enriching environment  Generous compensation package  Makes student loan and house payments more affordable

67 Careers in Industry What type of person excels in industry as a veterinary pathologist?  Able to integrate data from other disciplines  Scientific creativity and curiosity  Be a team player  Good communication skills  With peers, associates, management, and regulators  Flexibility and ability to accept change

68  Duties overlap those of pathologists in diagnostic, academic, and industry settings  Function as an anatomical pathologist or clinical pathologist  Function may be specialized e.g., toxicologic pathologist or molecular pathologist Career Opportunities in Government

69 Careers in Government: Training  DVM  DVM with board certification in anatomic or clinical pathology  DVM and PhD  During PhD studies, may obtain training in toxicology or molecular biology which allows pathologist to become specialized

70 Dr. Dixon, DVM, PhD specializes in understanding the cellular and molecular causes of neoplasia in the female reproductive system at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences APOPTOSIS PROTEINS MARKER OF CELL PROLIFERATION Growth Factor Staining Careers in Government

71  US Army Veterinary Corps  National Institutes of Health (NIH)  Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Careers in Government: Employment Opportunities

72 Diagnostic pathology support for all U.S. Government-owned animals Pathology Opportunities in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps

73 Chemical, biological & radiological defense research programs Pathology Opportunities in the U.S. Army Veterinary Corps

74 Travel and Fun Rewards of U.S. Army Veterinary Corps

75 Lancet 346: 1669-71, 1995 Jaax N, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Steele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters C. Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011, USA. Role of the Veterinary Pathologist in an American Ebola Outbreak

76 National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP)  Major governmental agency that coordinates toxicology research and testing activities in cooperation with other governmental agencies  World leader in designing, conducting, and interpreting assays for toxicity and cancer  Provides information to the public about potentially toxic chemicals to safeguard public health and prevent unnecessary exposure to hazards

77 Careers in Government: NIEHS / NTP Pathologists work on issues relevant to the American public Evaluate the safety of chemicals intended for human use  Chemicals used in commerce  Food additives  Drugs, cosmetic ingredients  Pesticides

78  Serve as pathologist responsible for gross and microscopic evaluation of laboratory animals  Serve as director of large multidisciplinary studies  Serve as researcher – principal investigator or collaborator  Teach undergraduate and graduate students Careers in Government: Responsibilities NIEHS / NIH

79  Retroviruses  Cat leukemia virus (Bill Jarrett)  Cat sarcoma virus (Stan Snyder, Gordon Eilen)  Bovine leukemia virus (Janice Miller)  Helicobacter species (Ward, Haines, Anver)  Helicobacter hepaticus liver tumors  Role of the Veterinary Pathologist in Discovering Infectious Agents as a Cause of Cancer

80 Contributions of a Veterinary Pathologist to a Nobel Prize: Kuru (in humans) vs Scrapie (in sheep)  Nobel Prize in Medicine 1976 for showing the infectious nature of kuru – to Carleton Gajdusek, MD Carlton Gadjusek, Nobel Lecture, 1976: “The clinical picture and histopathological findings of scrapie closely resemble those of kuru; this permitted Hadlow (1959) to suggest that both diseases might have similar etiologies.”  William Hadlow, DVM 1959 letter in Lancet: “The natural history and general clinical aspects (and the neuropathological changes) of the two diseases are strikingly similar…..Thus, it might be profitable to examine the possibility of the experimental induction of kuru in a laboratory primate ”

81  Provide input into review of new molecular entities and new formulations for human and veterinary drugs, vaccines, devices  Role in food safety  Research the potential for cutting edge technologies and drugs (e.g. transgenic animals)  Help design studies for understanding drug mechanisms of action and / or toxicity  Participate in national and international initiatives for drug development (e.g. World Health Organization) Careers in Government: Responsibilities of FDA

82 Research at the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency  The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory is a collection of research stations across the country where experiments are conducted to study the potential adverse effects of chemicals and environmental contaminants on human health, ecosystems, and wildlife.

83 EPA: Opportunities exist to become a recognized expert in many relevant fields such as reproductive toxicology, neurotoxicology, respiratory toxicology, immunology, and carcinogenesis. Lysotracker Staining for Cell Death

84  Opportunity to serve the American public and be mentored by other pathologists  Opportunity to serve as national and international advisors  Opportunity to collaborate with colleagues in academia, industry, diagnostic labs without having to write grants  Opportunity to make significant impact on protecting human health Careers in Government: Rewards

85 Careers in Veterinary Pathology For more information: American College of Veterinary Pathologists 7600 Terrace Avenue, Suite 203, Middleton, WI 53562-3174 608-833-8725 Society of Toxicologic Pathology 1767 Business Center Drive, Suite 302, Reston, VA 20190 703-438-7508 American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians P.O. Box 1770, Davis, CA 95617 530-754-5727

86 This presentation was created by these individuals – with the help of many other veterinary pathologists…. Dr. Maron Calderwood Mays Dr. Judit Markovits Dr. Glenn Cantor Dr. Robert Sills

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