2Penalty Flag TriviaFlag first used in a college game in Whistles or horns were used until then. The flag was red/white striped.Flag officially adopted in 1948.Red colored in HS and college until early 70’s.NFL used white until 1965.CFL uses orange.Orlando Brown settled for a reported $25m after being hit in the eye with a flag from NFL Referee Jim Triplette in 1999.
3Philosophical Approach The “Quality” of your call or no-call can significantly affect the course of a game.Remember the purpose of the game – to legally advance the ball.As an official, your job is to judge the execution & if necessary, the intent of a player. If an illegal act occurs, you must then process the following three things:Does the infraction affect the play?Does it concern player safety or sportsmanship?Did his team gain an advantage during the course of the play due to that illegal action?“Ball position on the field” or “time on the clock” has no bearing on these three actions because consistency is the objective for officials.Don’t be too technical, avoid “nitpick” or “gotcha” calls, make it be there, especially major fouls!Phantom calls are truly game interrupters, see the entire play or keep the flag in your pocket.If the action falls into a gray area of “foul or no foul”, then it should be considered “no foul” unless safety or sportsmanship is a factor.Use HUDL video to assist you in recognizing “warning signs” and improving your decision making abilities.
4Holding PhilosophyHolding presents a challenge for officials because so many factors surround throwing the flag.Keys to Offensive Holding fouls:Point of attackDouble-teamedAdvantage / DisadvantageDirection of runner. (Is the defender actively pursuing the runner?)Blockers positioning, can the opponent separate?Watch the blockers feet & quickness of the defenderTypes of offensive holding:Tackle: Holding below the waist or at the legs.Takedown: Wrestler style holding. Small blockers seeking an advantage.Pullover: Blocker pulls the defender on top of him to the ground.Hook, Grab, or Jerk and Restrict: Holding after the players has been beaten by the defender. Be sure that the action affects the play.Types of defensive holding:Pull & Shoot: Defense pulls a lineman away so a clear path can be used by a teammate.
5Pass Interference Remember Basic Pass Interference Guidelines: Action that interferes with an opponent’s opportunity to move toward, catch, or bat a pass. Incidental contact is not interference.Contact is not necessary.Interference must occur beyond the line of scrimmage.Restrictions Begin:Offense – At the snap. (If he initiates contact 2 yds. beyond the LOS or sets a pick, it’s OPI.)Defense – When the ball leaves the passers hand.Both offense and defense have a legal right to the ball.“Catchable Pass” is not a factor in high school football.It’s the responsibility of the offense to avoid the defenders.Contact by the Defense:Contact by the defense on a potential blocker is legal until the offensive receiver demonstrates that he is not a blocker by:Moving away from the defender.Passing the defender.Once either occur, the defender may not make contact. (9-2-3d)GUIDELINE: Allow defensive contact until offensive receiver occupies same yard line, or until he demonstrates that he is not blocking.PENALTY: Illegal Use of Hands (10 yards)
6NFHS Enforcement Principals All-But-One: Enforcement is based on the fact that a team is given the advantage of the distance which is gained without assistance of a foul. It is assumed that the only foul which would give this aid would be a foul by the offense behind the basic spot. Therefore, “all fouls but this one”, that is a foul by the offense behind the basic spot, are penalized from the basic spot. This one foul is penalized from the spot of the foul.Exceptions to Live Ball – “All But One” fouls:Fouls which occur simultaneous with the snap.Foul by the opponent of the scoring team during a successful try, field goal, or touchdown. (Penalty is assessed from the succeeding spot if the score and penalty are accepted.)Non-player or unsportsmanlike fouls.Roughing the passer when the dead ball spot is beyond the NZ and there has been no change of possession.Kick catching interference when the offended team accepts a penalty of 15 yards from the spot of the foul.
7Principals Play Spots & Types: Basic spot for a loose ball play is the previous spot.“Loose Ball Play” is action during:Free Kick or Scrimmage Kick.Legal Forward Pass.Backward Pass (including snap), illegal kick or fumble made by A from in or behind the NZ prior to a change of possession.Note: (Includes run(s) which precede such legal or illegal kick, legal forward pass, backward pass or fumble.)Basic spot for a running play is the end of the run.“Running Play” is any action which is not a loose ball play.In or behind the NZ in either of the following:Includes a run not followed by a loose ball.A run followed by an illegal forward pass.Beyond the NZ:Includes a run.A run followed by a loose ball, including an illegal forward pass or kick. A run ends when a runner loses possession, but the related running play continues until the ball becomes dead or some player again gets possession.
8Special Enforcement Rules Free Kick Out of BoundsInbounds spot through yard line where ball went O.B.Inbounds spot 25 yards from the previous spot.5 yard penalty and re-kick by K.Kick-Catching Interference*Awarded fair catch following a 15 yard penalty from the spot of the foul, or;15 yard penalty from previous spot & re-play down.Unfair ActsReferee imposes penalty that he considers equitable if not covered by rule.Fouls During Scoring PlaysFouls by the opponents of the scoring team;During Touchdown with no change of possession, or foul after change of possession.Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot or subsequent kick-off.During a Successful Try.Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot.During a Successful Field Goal.
9Special Enforcement Rules After a Touchdown and before the initial ready for play signal for the try.If either team commits any foul for which the basic spot is the succeeding spot, the offended team can have the penalty enforced from the succeeding spot or the subsequent kickoff.First Touching by R is ignoredIf R commits a foul after the touching and the penalty is accepted.A penalty for any foul is accepted.Roughing the kicker (holder) / running into the kicker (holder) –Roughing – contact that endangers the safety of the kicker or holder.(15 yds.)Running into – contact where the kicker or holder is displaced from his position but not roughed. (5 yds.)Contact is ignored when:It is not reasonably certain that the kick will be made.The kick is touched.A defender is blocked into the kicker or holder by a member of the kicking team.
10Special Enforcement Rules Roughing the passer – Enforcement is added from the dead ball spot beyond the neutral zone when there is no change of team possession.(15 yds.)Roughing the snapper – Defensive player must charge directly into the snapper when the offense is in kicking formation. (15 yds.)When a run ends in the end zone after a change of possession, the basic spot is determined based on the force that put the ball in the end zone.20 Yard Line – Fouls by either team when the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul is responsible for forcing the ball across the goal line of the team in possession, and the run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-6)Goal Line – Fouls which are committed during running plays by the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul when the team in possession is responsible for forcing the ball across its own goal line, and the related run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-7)
11All-But-One Enforcement Defensive Penalties are Not Part of the All-But-One Principal!!!20Offensive Live-Ball FoulBasic SpotBeyondDefensive Live-Ball Foul30Penalty Marked off from the basic spotOffensive Live-Ball FoulBehindPenalty Marked off from the spot of the foul40
12All-But-One Enforcement Running PlayBasic SpotPlay (run) whistled dead20Offensive Live-Ball FoulBehindPenalty Marked off from the spot of the foulSpot of Snap3040
13All-But-One Enforcement Loose Ball Play (Pass)Pass caught & player tackledimmediately.20Offensive Live-Ball FoulSpot of SnapBasic SpotBeyond30Penalty Marked off from the basic spotOffensive Live-Ball FoulBehindPenalty Marked off from the spot of the foul40
14All-But-One Enforcement Running Play (Which Includes a Loose Ball – Fumble)Offensive Live-Ball Foul20Play whistled deadBeyondBasic SpotPenalty Marked off from the basic spotPenalty Marked off from the spot of the foulBehindSpot of Snap30Offensive Live-Ball Foul40
15All-But-One Enforcement End Zone Enforcement20Running play whistled dead10Spot of SnapBasic SpotGOffensive Live-Ball FoulSAFETYBehind Goal Line
16All-But-One Enforcement Touchback EnforcementBasic Spot20Penalty marked off from the spot of the foulSpot of Snap10Defensive Live-Ball Foul After InterceptionPlay Whistled DeadGBehind Goal Line -TouchbackDefensive Interception
17All-But-One Enforcement Double Foul Enforcement / Change of PossessionOffensive Live-Ball Foul Before Interception20Defensive Live-Ball Foul After InterceptionSpot of Snap10Play Whistled DeadBasic SpotPenalty on defense is marked off from the basic spot, half the distance.GDefense must decline the penalty in order to keep the ball since they obtained it with “clean hands”.Defensive Interception
18Dead Ball Enforcement 20 30 40 Situation: 2nd down & 5 from B-30 Play whistled dead at B-23Offensive Dead-Ball FoulPenalty Marked off from the succeeding spotSpot of Snap30First down was achieved by A.First & 10 from B-3840
19Dead Ball Enforcement 20 30 40 Situation: 4nd down & 4 from B-35 First down was not achieved by A.B’s ball, 1st & 10 from B-2230Spot of SnapPenalty Marked off from the succeeding spotPlay whistled dead at B-37Defensive Dead-Ball Foul40
20Live / Dead Ball Enforcement Situation: 2nd down & Goal from B-15TouchdownDefensive unsportsmanlike foul in end zoneGLive ball penalty marked off under “all but one”, back to 13 yard line.Offensive holding foul at 3 yard lineRemains A ball, 2nd down & Goal from the 6-1/2 yard line.10Dead ball penalty marked off from the succeeding spot, half the distance to 6-1/2 yard line.Spot of SnapRemember: Live ball penalties are administered first, then all dead ball penalties in the order of occurrence! Live Ball / Dead ball penalties do not offset!20
21Enforcement During a Score Situation: 2nd down & Goal from B-15TouchdownG40Live ball penalty marked offon the try half the distance, or the succeeding kick-off.Defensive foul during runKick-off from R’s 45 yard line if succeeding spot option is taken..K1050Spot of Snap2040
22PSK Enforcement 20 30 40 Kick Ends Here Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of kick20Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of runReceivers Live-Ball Foul During KickReturn Ends HereReceivers Live-Ball Foul After Kick Ends30Receivers Live-Ball Foul During KickSpot of SnapExpanded Neutral ZonePenalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot40
23Scrimmage Kick Enforcement Penalty marked off from the spot of the foul, orKick Ends HereKick Catch Interference20Return Ends Here30Spot of SnapPenalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot40
24Scrimmage Kick Enforcement Kick Ends HereKick Catch Interference20The penalty cannot be carried over since the foul occurred before the change of possession (during the loose ball play).30Spot of SnapReturn Ends as Touchdown40
25Scrimmage Kick Enforcement B-9 retreats to his own end zone where he is tackled there. Momentum is not a factor.What are our options/decisions?GAccept the results of play; Safety - B free kick from B20Ball then rolls untouched to the 11 and is then “illegally kicked” forward by A-78.B-9 picks ball up at 210Accept first touching by A – First down for B at B11Spot of SnapExpanded Neutral ZoneAccept 15 yard penalty – Replay 4th. down from B30Situation – 4th & 4 from B-15; Scrimmage Kick Formation20FG attempt partially blocked by B-99
26Officiating GuidesYou have specific officiating responsibilities, work your position, no more – no less.Tenth Commandment - Thou shalt not covet your neighbors house, wife, or another officials area.See the whole play. Rely on your experience, your judgment, and the intent or spirit with which the rules are written. Consistency in judgment throughout the game establishes credibility!Use preventative officiating (not coaching). Communicate with players, coaches, and fellow officials.Player actions that can result in injury must be called and enforced.Proper penalty protocol:Drop the flag at the appropriate yard line. Keep officiating if ball is live.Be sure your flag is covered by another official before you report to the referee. (Don’t leave the dead ball spot.)Be clear in your communication with the referee regarding the penalty. Don’t give a visible signal as you approach the referee.Record unsportsmanlike penalties on your card.Don’t indulge in a “make-up” call nor be “talked into” a call by a coach.Remember, game films don’t lie.