Penalty Flag Trivia Flag first used in a college game in Whistles or horns were used until then. The flag was red/white striped. Flag officially adopted in Red colored in HS and college until early 70’s. NFL used white until CFL uses orange. Orlando Brown settled for a reported $25m after being hit in the eye with a flag from NFL Referee Jim Triplette in 1999.
Philosophical Approach The “Quality” of your call or no-call can significantly affect the course of a game. Remember the purpose of the game – to legally advance the ball. As an official, your job is to judge the execution & if necessary, the intent of a player. If an illegal act occurs, you must then process the following three things: –Does the infraction affect the play? –Does it concern player safety or sportsmanship? –Did his team gain an advantage during the course of the play due to that illegal action? “Ball position on the field” or “time on the clock” has no bearing on these three actions because consistency is the objective for officials. Don’t be too technical, avoid “nitpick” or “gotcha” calls, make it be there, especially major fouls! Phantom calls are truly game interrupters, see the entire play or keep the flag in your pocket. If the action falls into a gray area of “foul or no foul”, then it should be considered “no foul” unless safety or sportsmanship is a factor. Use HUDL video to assist you in recognizing “warning signs” and improving your decision making abilities.
Holding Philosophy Holding presents a challenge for officials because so many factors surround throwing the flag. Keys to Offensive Holding fouls: –Point of attack –Double-teamed –Advantage / Disadvantage –Direction of runner. (Is the defender actively pursuing the runner?) –Blockers positioning, can the opponent separate? –Watch the blockers feet & quickness of the defender Types of offensive holding: –Tackle: Holding below the waist or at the legs. –Takedown: Wrestler style holding. Small blockers seeking an advantage. –Pullover: Blocker pulls the defender on top of him to the ground. –Hook, Grab, or Jerk and Restrict: Holding after the players has been beaten by the defender. Be sure that the action affects the play. Types of defensive holding: –Pull & Shoot: Defense pulls a lineman away so a clear path can be used by a teammate.
Pass Interference Remember Basic Pass Interference Guidelines: –Action that interferes with an opponent’s opportunity to move toward, catch, or bat a pass. Incidental contact is not interference. –Contact is not necessary. –Interference must occur beyond the line of scrimmage. –Restrictions Begin: »Offense – At the snap. (If he initiates contact 2 yds. beyond the LOS or sets a pick, it’s OPI.) »Defense – When the ball leaves the passers hand. –Both offense and defense have a legal right to the ball. –“Catchable Pass” is not a factor in high school football. –It’s the responsibility of the offense to avoid the defenders. Contact by the Defense: –Contact by the defense on a potential blocker is legal until the offensive receiver demonstrates that he is not a blocker by: »Moving away from the defender. »Passing the defender. »Once either occur, the defender may not make contact. (9-2-3d) »GUIDELINE: Allow defensive contact until offensive receiver occupies same yard line, or until he demonstrates that he is not blocking. »PENALTY: Illegal Use of Hands (10 yards)
NFHS Enforcement Principals All-But-OneAll-But-One: Enforcement is based on the fact that a team is given the advantage of the distance which is gained without assistance of a foul. It is assumed that the only foul which would give this aid would be a foul by the offense behind the basic spot. Therefore, “all fouls but this one”, that is a foul by the offense behind the basic spot, are penalized from the basic spot. This one foul is penalized from the spot of the foul. Exceptions to Live Ball – “All But One” fouls:Exceptions to Live Ball – “All But One” fouls: –Fouls which occur simultaneous with the snap. –Foul by the opponent of the scoring team during a successful try, field goal, or touchdown. (Penalty is assessed from the succeeding spot if the score and penalty are accepted.) –Non-player or unsportsmanlike fouls. –Roughing the passer when the dead ball spot is beyond the NZ and there has been no change of possession. –Kick catching interference when the offended team accepts a penalty of 15 yards from the spot of the foul.
Principals Play Spots & Types: –Basic spot for a loose ball play is the previous spot. “Loose Ball Play” is action during: –Free Kick or Scrimmage Kick. –Legal Forward Pass. –Backward Pass (including snap), illegal kick or fumble made by A from in or behind the NZ prior to a change of possession. Note: (Includes run(s) which precede such legal or illegal kick, legal forward pass, backward pass or fumble.) –Basic spot for a running play is the end of the run. “Running Play” is any action which is not a loose ball play. –In or behind the NZ in either of the following: »Includes a run not followed by a loose ball. »A run followed by an illegal forward pass. –Beyond the NZ: »Includes a run. »A run followed by a loose ball, including an illegal forward pass or kick. A run ends when a runner loses possession, but the related running play continues until the ball becomes dead or some player again gets possession.
Special Enforcement Rules Free Kick Out of BoundsFree Kick Out of Bounds Inbounds spot through yard line where ball went O.B. Inbounds spot 25 yards from the previous spot. 5 yard penalty and re-kick by K. Kick-Catching InterferenceKick-Catching Interference *Awarded fair catch following a 15 yard penalty from the spot of the foul, or; 15 yard penalty from previous spot & re-play down. Unfair ActsUnfair Acts Referee imposes penalty that he considers equitable if not covered by rule. Fouls During Scoring PlaysFouls During Scoring Plays –Fouls by the opponents of the scoring team; During Touchdown with no change of possession, or foul after change of possession. –Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot or subsequent kick-off. During a Successful Try. –Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot. During a Successful Field Goal. –Accept results of play and have penalty enforced from succeeding spot.
Special Enforcement Rules After a Touchdown and before the initial ready for play signal for the try.After a Touchdown and before the initial ready for play signal for the try. –If either team commits any foul for which the basic spot is the succeeding spot, the offended team can have the penalty enforced from the succeeding spot or the subsequent kickoff. First Touching by R is ignoredFirst Touching by R is ignored –If R commits a foul after the touching and the penalty is accepted. –A penalty for any foul is accepted. Roughing the kicker (holder) / running into the kicker (holder) –Roughing the kicker (holder) / running into the kicker (holder) – –Roughing – contact that endangers the safety of the kicker or holder. (15 yds.) –Running into – contact where the kicker or holder is displaced from his position but not roughed. (5 yds.) –Contact is ignored when: It is not reasonably certain that the kick will be made. The kick is touched. A defender is blocked into the kicker or holder by a member of the kicking team.
Special Enforcement Rules Roughing the passerRoughing the passer – Enforcement is added from the dead ball spot beyond the neutral zone when there is no change of team possession. (15 yds.) Roughing the snapperRoughing the snapper – Defensive player must charge directly into the snapper when the offense is in kicking formation. (15 yds.) When a run ends in the end zone after a change of possession,When a run ends in the end zone after a change of possession, the basic spot is determined based on the force that put the ball in the end zone. –20 Yard Line – Fouls by either team when the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul is responsible for forcing the ball across the goal line of the team in possession, and the run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-6) –Goal Line – Fouls which are committed during running plays by the opponent of the team in possession at the time of the foul when the team in possession is responsible for forcing the ball across its own goal line, and the related run ends in the end zone and is followed by a loose ball, regardless of where the loose ball becomes dead. (10-4-7)
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Beyond Behind Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the basic spot Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul Defensive Live-Ball Foul Defensive Penalties are Not Part of the All-But-One Principal!!!
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Behind Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul Spot of Snap Running Play Play (run) whistled dead
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Beyond Behind Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the basic spot Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul Spot of Snap Loose Ball Play (Pass) Pass caught & player tackled immediately.
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Behind Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the spot of the foul Spot of Snap Running Play (Which Includes a Loose Ball – Fumble) Play whistled dead Offensive Live-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the basic spot Beyond
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Behind Goal Line Offensive Live-Ball FoulSAFETY Spot of Snap End Zone Enforcement Running play whistled dead
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Behind Goal Line - Touchback Defensive Live-Ball Foul After Interception Spot of Snap Touchback Enforcement Play Whistled Dead Defensive Interception Penalty marked off from the spot of the foul
All-But-One Enforcement Basic Spot Defensive Live-Ball Foul After Interception Spot of Snap Double Foul Enforcement / Change of Possession Play Whistled Dead Defensive Interception Penalty on defense is marked off from the basic spot, half the distance. Offensive Live-Ball Foul Before Interception Defense must decline the penalty in order to keep the ball since they obtained it with “clean hands”.
Dead Ball Enforcement First down was achieved by A. First & 10 from B-38 Offensive Dead-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the succeeding spot Situation: 2 nd down & 5 from B-30 Play whistled dead at B-23 Spot of Snap
Dead Ball Enforcement First down was not achieved by A. B’s ball, 1 st & 10 from B-22 Defensive Dead-Ball Foul Penalty Marked off from the succeeding spot Situation: 4 nd down & 4 from B-35 Play whistled dead at B-37 Spot of Snap
Live / Dead Ball Enforcement Situation: 2 nd down & Goal from B-15 Spot of Snap Touchdown Offensive holding foul at 3 yard line Defensive unsportsmanlike foul in end zone Live ball penalty marked off under “all but one”, back to 13 yard line. Dead ball penalty marked off from the succeeding spot, half the distance to 6-1/2 yard line. Remains A ball, 2 nd down & Goal from the 6-1/2 yard line. Remember: Live ball penalties are administered first, then all dead ball penalties in the order of occurrence! Live Ball / Dead ball penalties do not offset!
Enforcement During a Score Situation: 2 nd down & Goal from B-15 Spot of Snap Touchdown Defensive foul during run Live ball penalty marked off on the try half the distance, or the succeeding kick-off. Kick-off from R’s 45 yard line if succeeding spot option is taken..
PSK Enforcement Return Ends Here Receivers Live-Ball Foul During Kick Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of kick Spot of Snap Kick Ends Here Receivers Live-Ball Foul After Kick Ends Penalty marked off from basic spot - end of run Expanded Neutral Zone Receivers Live-Ball Foul During Kick Penalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement Return Ends Here Kick Catch Interference Spot of Snap Kick Ends Here Penalty marked off from the spot of the foul, or Penalty marked off from basic spot – previous spot
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement Return Ends as Touchdown Kick Catch Interference Spot of Snap Kick Ends Here The penalty cannot be carried over since the foul occurred before the change of possession (during the loose ball play).
Scrimmage Kick Enforcement B-9 picks ball up at 2 Spot of Snap Ball then rolls untouched to the 11 and is then “illegally kicked” forward by A-78. Expanded Neutral Zone FG attempt partially blocked by B-99 B-9 retreats to his own end zone where he is tackled there. Momentum is not a factor. What are our options/decisions? Accept the results of play; Safety - B free kick from B20 Accept 15 yard penalty – Replay 4 th. down from B30 Accept first touching by A – First down for B at B11 Situation – 4 th & 4 from B-15; Scrimmage Kick Formation
Officiating Guides work your position, no more – no lessYou have specific officiating responsibilities, work your position, no more – no less. Tenth Commandment - Thou shalt not covet your neighbors house, wife, or another officials area. Consistency in judgment throughout the game establishes credibility!See the whole play. Rely on your experience, your judgment, and the intent or spirit with which the rules are written. Consistency in judgment throughout the game establishes credibility! Use preventative officiating (not coaching). Communicate with players, coaches, and fellow officials. Player actions that can result in injury must be called and enforced. Proper penalty protocol: Drop the flag at the appropriate yard line. Keep officiating if ball is live. Be sure your flag is covered by another official before you report to the referee. (Don’t leave the dead ball spot.) Be clear in your communication with the referee regarding the penalty. Don’t give a visible signal as you approach the referee. Record unsportsmanlike penalties on your card. Don’t indulge in a “make-up” call nor be “talked into” a call by a coach. Remember, game films don’t lie.