Phillis Wheatley ✓ Enslaved at age 8 ✓ Named after the boat that brought her over and the family that raised her. ✓ Personal servant for Susanna Wheatley ✓ Christian family taught her to read and write ✓ They are also responsible for her being published. ✓ Writes poetry ✓ Encourages against slavery ✓ “God-forsaken Africa” ✓ First African-American published.
Olauduh Equiano ✓ Also known as Gustavus Vassa. ✓ Freeman ✓ Begins slavery in Africa- Different village ✓ Buys his freedom ✓ Travels the world exploring and writing ✓ Learns to read and write from owners- based in Christianity ✓ Writes a narrative about life ripped from Africa ✓ Brings about the end of the slave trade in Britain ✓ Sends him into speaking tour
Olauduh Equiano ✓ The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African ✓ Published 1789 ✓ Traces Africa to England to War of 1812 to Jamaica to Spain ✓ “I now saw myself deprived of all chance of returning to my native country, or even the least glimpse of hope of gaining the shore, which I now considered as friendly; and I even wished for my former slavery in preference to my present situation, which was filled with horrors of every kind, still heightened by my ignorance of what I was to undergo. I was not long suffered to indulge my grief; I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste any thing.”
Frederick Douglass ✓ Escapes Slavery- Buys freedom later ✓ Becomes spokesperson for abolitionists ✓ Believed in everyone’s freedom ✓ "I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong.” ✓ Taught to read and write by sister of his owner ✓ She was an abolitionist ✓ "knowledge is the pathway from slavery to freedom.” ✓ He taught other slaves about the Bible
Frederick Douglass ✓ Autobiography: Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, American Slave ✓ First Published in 1845 ✓ Reprinted three more times ✓ Toured Europe talking about his life ✓ Experience with National Politics ✓ Abraham Lincoln’s advisor on the treatment of black soldiers ✓ In 1852 Rochester, New York asks him to speak for July 4- he speaks his mind.
Harriet Beecher Stowe ✓ White Abolitionist ✓ Stop on the Underground Railroad ✓ Went to Seminary: religious training. ✓ Uncle Tom’s Cabin ✓ Fiction depicting slavery ✓ International Best Seller ✓ Wins sympathy for the cause ✓ Lincoln said, “So you're the little lady who started this great war!”
Harriet Beecher Stowe ✓ Uncle Tom’s Cabin ✓ Uncle Tom is a slave- see his interactions ✓ Uncle Tom is either sympathetic or pitiful ✓ “ A black man who will do anything to stay in good standing with "the white man" including betray his own people” ✓ Begins with depiction of slave trade ✓ Originally published in Serial Form
Harlem Renaissance ✓ During the 1920s ✓ Neighborhood in New York City ✓ Finally black authors become a legit literary voice- not just someone pushing abolition ✓ Some of the most famous black authors ✓ Langston Hughes ✓ Zora Neal Hurston
Current Authors ✓ Toni Morrison ✓ Writes the spiritual myths with the pain ✓ Regularly takes several generations into her stories ✓ Encourages dark imagery to be beautiful ✓ Alice Walker ✓ Most famous for The Color Purple ✓ Writes more on the effects of slavery on the black community ✓ Struggled with personal life