Presentation on theme: "The Lower Orders in Northwestern Europe By: Amy Feng, Ben Karpas, Shira Li, Brandon Sherman, Jess Silverman."— Presentation transcript:
The Lower Orders in Northwestern Europe By: Amy Feng, Ben Karpas, Shira Li, Brandon Sherman, Jess Silverman
Land Ownership ●Land was directly related to social status ●People who owned the most land controlled the local governments and courts ●Peasants often sought labor on land plots and in return, received their lord’s protection and shelter ●Western Europe had almost no revolts, with the exception of some small rural conflicts in England
Consumption and Material Culture ●Household was the basic unit of production and consumption ●Inventions as a result of the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented increase in the supply of consumer goods ●Europeans had more disposable income, were influenced by advertising and expanding domestic markets
Life in the Cities ●Shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners were the single largest group in any city (economic position most vulnerable) ●Workers unified themselves in various guilds, seeking economic growth they tried to preserve the jobs and skills of their members
Women and Land Ownership ● Women worked mainly jobs that were supplemental to their husband’s work ● Women worked first in their parents’ household, then saved quickly to find a husband. ● Women could not manage land on their own
Women’s Consumption & Material Culture ● Women sought to achieve capital for her dowry ● Men were paid much more than women, because her income was only seen to be a supplement. ● Women were able to indulge in consumer goods available in shops, and the women of higher class were able to disregard engagement and economic productivity, as exhibited in F. Boucher’s The Breakfast.
Women’s Lives in the Cities ● In cities, wife of the artisan would have to be in charge of the household finances and actively trade in enterprise ● Widows sought to remarry quickly because the labor and skills of the male were essential ● Agricultural revolution denied women of most of their roles, because mechanization was often reserved for men. They turned to spinning and knitting to replace agriculture ● Domestic servitude became one of the biggest employers of women after the agricultural revolution