1890s: The U.S. Rapid growth in industry after Civil War results in nat’l wealth Western frontier had closed (no more left to discover…the end of Cattle Kingdom) Is MANIFEST DESTINY still relevant??? Now…look to foreign markets to sustain our economy
1893 World’s Columbian Exposition Chicago - 400 th anniversary of discovery of the new world - 27 million: ¼ of nation’s population visit fairgrounds (largest tourist attraction in history) Inspires visitors to indulge in America’s glorious past/ delve into glorious future?...
Teddy Roosevelt says 1897: “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one” (not president until 1901) Knowing what you know about the U.S. mentality and about Teddy Roosevelt, why would he say this?!
Where do we draw the line between extending “manifest destiny” and bullying?
SPAM (Spanish American War) - Cuba: Spanish-ruled island 90 miles off coast of Florida -Cuban patriots revolted against harsh Spanish rule -American public wanted President McKinley to take action to help them
Tensions in Cuba Jose Marti led Cuban rebels in their fight against Spain, coining the battle cry, “Cuba Libre!” (Free Cuba). Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to be a governor to Cuba ( Uses brutal tactics to crush revolt) Cuba Libre!!! …..NO!
Tensions in Cuba – Reconcentration: policy of moving large numbers of people into camps for political or military purposes 100,000 Cubans in rebel reconcentration camps died from starvation & disease
American Opinion Americans had invested $50 million in Cuba – Rice & sugar plantations, railroads, tobacco, mines – Trade with Cuba = $100 million per year
American Opinion Opinion split over whether U.S. should intervene in Cuba or not – NO: it could hurt our foreign trade – YES: It’s our duty as Americans to help Cubans achieve their freedom like we did during the American Revolution Henry Cabot Lodge (Senator Massachusetts) “They have risen against oppression, … which led us to rebel against England …they should have the sympathy of the people of the U.S.”
Americans Call for War Pulitzer & Hearst compete to print the most grisly stories about Spanish atrocities: wartime acts of cruelty & brutality – War sells more newspapers!!! – Yellow journalism: reporting that relied on sensational stories and headlines that were biased or untrue. Still, McKinley wanted to stay neutral
“Remember the Maine” 1898- fighting broke out in Havana; capital of Cuba McKinley sent U.S. battleship Maine to protect U.S. citizens & property there While anchored in the harbor, an explosion destroys the Maine – 260 died of the 350 U.S. crew
The real cause of the explosion remains a mystery. Maybe… – Boiler blew up – Accident in ship’s ammunition room “Remember the Maine”
SPAM - U.S. papers covered stories of brutality/ cruelty daily Exaggerated or made up to stir American anger Sound familiar?... – Under growing public pressure, McKinley signs declaration of war against Spain on April 25th, 1898
RESULT: (SPAM) Spanish American War: 1898 war between Spain & U.S. that lasted 4 months
LEGO LIBRE! In your group, create a scene depicting one of the following themes/events: Expansionism Yellow Journalism Imperialism “Remember the Maine” White Man’s Burden Cuba Libre! Cuban Reconcentration You have 10 minutes to complete your creation