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Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 1 L EISURE, R ECREATION, P LAY AND FLOW."— Presentation transcript:


2 C ONTENTS IN THIS CHAPTER  What is Leisure?  Problems with Conventional Ideas about Leisure?  Does Leisure Apply to Everyone?  Proposing a Definition of Leisure  Summary

3 W HY L EISURE ?  What leisure may complete in your life?  To determine your happiness, contribution to the world, meaning of your life  Common thinking about leisure  Leisure is the thing you do during your nonworking and non-obligated time

4 O RIGIN OF LEISURE  To have leisure is one of the earliest dreams of human beings  To be free from and endless round of the labor  To be free to pursue what one wants  To be free to spend time in voluntary, pleasurable ways  To be free to find and accept one’s place in the world  To be free from tyranny of nature and of other human beings  To be free to exist in a state of grace  Living life on your own terms  Being free to do what you choose

5 L EISURE MAY BE …  You may find leisure when you are alone, at school, church, temple, clubs, shopping centers, night market, in automobiles, tents, caves, bars, in front of TV, computer monitor, smart phones, apps, in the formation of drifting clouds, and in many other circumstances  Consequently, when studying leisure, many different parts of human condition must be examined.  To understand leisure, we must also try to clarify values about what role it can and should play in our lives.

6 Q UESTIONS RELATED TO L EISURE  What are leisure, recreation, play and flow, what do these terms mean?  What roles have they played in other societies?  Is a life of leisure desirable- or possible?  What do people do for leisure  Are some leisure activities better than others?  How does leisure behavior relate to our work, education, economy, religious belief, and so forth?

7 W HAT IS LEISURE  The idea of leisure is complicated and diverse..  The different perspectives reflect historical differences in the organization of societies as well as differences in concepts of both freedom and pleasure  The concepts of leisure originated from the ancient Athens, then the industrialization process began in Britain, the emergence of commercial enterprises (which promoted specific forms of nonwork activity). Recently, the concepts of leisure has been shaped by a huge of communication technologies, from the cell phone, iPad, to plasma TV  Leisure has been conceptualized in four basic contexts: time, activities, state of existence, and state of mind

8 L EISURE DEFINED AS TIME  Some portion of our lives in which we have comparatively greater freedom to do what we want which do not involve money—leisure defined as time  Aristotle called it available time  Some call it “free time”

9 L EISURE DEFINED AS TIME - QUESTIONS ?!  Sometimes, it is difficult to define “free time”  As for farmers, artists, students, homeless, professors, it is hard to draw the line between obligated hours or free time  If we define “free time” as one not involved in activities which we receive money, the definition has no meaning to many in our society who do not do such work  Furthermore, sometimes we are compelled to do many thing s that don’t involve money.  For example we may feel compelled to wash cars, watering, attend a wedding, exercise to lose weight which do not involve money.  Some may involved in political, religious, voluntary social work which do not receive money

10 L EISURE D EFINED AS TIME  For people who have full control of time, if we simply define leisure as “free time” to do what we want, it has no meaning to the following:  The permanent, voluntary leisure of the rich  Temporary, involuntary leisure of the unemployed  Regularly allocated, voluntary leisure of the disabled  The voluntary retirement of the aged

11 L EISURE D EFINED AS ACTIVITIES  The ancient Greek word for leisure, schole, means “serious activity without the pressure of necessity”  The Greek term “recreation” means “playful amusement to pass time”  The conception of leisure as activity has been broadened to:  A number of occupations in which the individual may indulge of his own free will—either to rest, to amuse himself, to add to his knowledge or improve his skills disinterestedly or to increase his voluntary participation in the life of the community after discharging his professional, family, and social duties

12 L EISURE D EFINED AS ACTIVITIES - QUESTIONS  When leisure is defined as some sort of activities or occupations, the problem is at time some activities may serve as leisure to most people but not to some take such activities as job, or gain friendship or spend time with families—to them such activities are not leisure to them.  For example, playing softball may be leisure to all but not to the softball players who do this for money.  Some may feel they need to play games to protect their jobs earn friendship who are important to them.

13 L EISURE DEFINED AS A STATE OF EXISTENCE  According to Aristotle, leisure is defined as the absence of the necessity of being occupied.  The state has also been thought of as “ a mind of contemplation”.—thus leisure is often used as an adjective to mean “unhurried, tranquil, or without regard to time.  Leisure defined as a state of existence may also relate to religious celebration.  Some believe leisure was a sense of celebration which characterize the lives of some people who accepted the world and their place in the world with joy  To them, leisure is a state of grace bestowed upon those who are capable of spiritual celebration

14 L EISURE DEFINED AS A STATE OF MIND  Leisure is defined as “perceived freedom or internal locus of control”  The individuals believe that they are controlling events rather than being controlled by events.  According to psychologist John Neukinger, Leisure has one and only one essential criterion, and that is the condition of perceived freedom.  Any activity carried out freely without constraint or compulsion may be considered to be leisure. To leisure implies being engaged in an activity as a free agent and of one’s own choice

15 P ROBLEMS WITH CONVENTIONAL IDEAS ABOUT LEISURE  According to the previous definitions about leisure from the four aspects, we may confront some difficulties in defining leisure

16 L EISURE AS FREE TIME ?  Free time is often thought of as “leisure” itself or as necessary but insufficient condition for “leisure” to take place  For example, some may at first feel compelled to cook for his/her family but find it interesting some time later and consider it pleasurable as leisure  Some may be forced to learn musical instruments but find it enjoyable when playing even they are confined during lessons

17 L EISURE DEFINED AS ACTIVITIES ?  Leisure is not an activity but a process which involves some specific act  For example, defining leisure as a cluster of activities which can identify in advance has the opposite problem from defining leisure only as a “state of mind”  The “state of mind” definition ignores the external world, while defining leisure only as a specific cluster of activities ignores the internal world



20 D OES L EISURE APPLY TO EVERYONE ?  Most definitions discussed previously apply mainly to males.  If leisure is defined in terms of time, it is frequently thought of in opposition to work, and work frequently means paid employment. If leisure is what happens after work, how it applies to unemployment or housewives?  If we define leisure in terms of activities, there is a tendency to ignore women, for example, camping is an activity to men but may not be leisure from female’s perspective—suppose women have to do all the packing for the camping trip, prepare the children, plan the meals, wash up after each meal….  Thus, leisure has been a concept that historically has applied mainly to men but notices that women’s role have changed remarkable during the past few decades

21 D EFINITION OF LEISURE !!!  Leisure is living in relative freedom from the external compulsive forces of one’s culture and physical environment so as to be able to act from internally compelling love in ways that are personally pleasing, intuitively worthwhile, and provide a basis for faith

22 R ECREATION  Recreation, play and leisure are sometimes used interchangeably, but the term recreation is often used in a more specific and limited sense.  Recreation has traditionally been defined as activity done in opposition to work which refreshes and restores the individual.  Margaret Mead has said that recreation represents a Whole attitude of conditional joy in which the delights of both work and play are tied together in a tight sequence. Neither one may be considered by itself, but man must work, then weary and take some recreation so he may work again

23 R ECREATION - CONT.  Recreation is dependent upon work for its meaning and function. Work come first, then recreation, and then more work.  If we think of leisure as free time, then it may be said that recreation is Any activity pursued during leisure, either individual or collective, that is free and pleasurable, having its own immediate appeal, not impelled by a delayed reward beyond itself

24 R ECREATION - CONT.  In popular usage, recreation may be defined as activity which isn’t serious, that is “fun and game”  Sometimes definitions of recreation are limited to leisure time activities that are “morally sound, mentally and physically uplifting, respectful of the rights of others, voluntarily motivated and provide a sense of pleasure and achievement.

25 P LAY  “Play” like “fun” is an easy concept to recognize in everyday life than it is to put into words  The Dutch historian John Huizinga define six characteristics of play:  Voluntary behavior  A stepping outside of “ordinary of life  Secluded and limited in time and space  Not serious, but absorbs the player intensely  Bounded by rules  Promotes formation of social groups which surround themselves with secrecy

26 P LAY - CONT.  Are you a playful person?  According to Caillois, play has four forms:  The pursuit of vertigo in which one tries to momentarily destroy the stability of perception, escaping reality for the moment Children roll down hill or turn in circles until they become dizzy and fall down  Play may also be games of chance. Games in which there is an outcome over which the player has no control or a decision take place which is independent of the player Playing slot machines, bingo, matching coins, or lotteries  In some play, the player imitates or make-believe that he or she is something other than himself or herself Playing Elvis Presley  regulated by rules that most people agree to

27 P LAY - CONT.  Many social scientist believe play serves as a way in which the child takes on the culture he or she is born into.  Researchers suggest that through play child may “test out” his or her curiosities without experiencing repercussions in the event of failure  So what did you play while you are a child?  Play with a pet? Other kids? Hide and seek?

28 P LAY - CONT.  Some researchers explain play in terms of a need to show the ability to control or produce effects upon the environment  Putting together a puzzle, or tossing a wadded ball of paper into a trash can from a long distance

29 I S PLAYING JUST FOR KIDS ?  Fun and The Importance of Play: Why Adults Need to Play, Too--Play Time Isn't Just For Kids... By Elizabeth Scott, M.S., GuideElizabeth Scott, M.S.  It’s important to your stress level and your happiness quotient that you have at least one activity that you do regularly just for fun. Hobbies and other fun activities provide a fun way to sharpen skills, express your creativity, or just blow off steam. Also, when you get really engrossed in an activity you enjoy, you can experience a state of being know as flow, in which your brain is in a near- meditative state, which has benefits for your for your body, mind and soul.flow meditative 

30 T OP 10 S TRESS R ELIEVER H OBBIES  Gardening Gardening  Explore Photography Explore Photography  Scrapbooking Scrapbooking  Maintain a Saltwater Aquarium Maintain a Saltwater Aquarium  Puzzles Puzzles  Drawing Drawing  Painting Painting  KnittingKnitting  Playing The PianoPlaying The Piano  Writing Writing

31 FLOW  According to a psychologist Mihayi Cskszentmihalyi, flow is a kind of optimal experience which can take places as either work or leisure  In work or leisure, flow can occur only when an individual is capable of concentration and has developed skill  Many leisure experiences have little potential for flow.  Those that don’t require much skill, such as watching TV, provide no challenge or the opportunity to use skill, but there is evidence that such activities are not very satisfying  Flowing activity is the making of meaning and doing so requires giving oneself in a focus way, where climbing a mountain, performing surgery, or playing the trumpet

32 S TUDY Q UESTIONS  Describe some situations in which you experience leisure. What makes it leisure?  What is your favorite leisure activities, and why you like it/them?  What function does leisure serve in your life?


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