Presentation on theme: "Teaching Psychology in Pakistan: Changing Perspectives Anila Kamal (Ph.D) Tenured Professor and Director National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam."— Presentation transcript:
Teaching Psychology in Pakistan: Changing Perspectives Anila Kamal (Ph.D) Tenured Professor and Director National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan 1 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Overview History of Psychology in Pakistan dates back to 1920s. Mostly, Departments of Philosophy offered Masters programs both in philosophy and psychology These departments took initiatives in test development and cultural adaptations of the Western tests However, in the middle of last century, independent departments of Psychology were established in public sector universities 2 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
First professional journal of psychology in Pakistan, the Pakistan Journal of Psychology was published in June, 1965 In the following years, Pakistan witness more openings of new departments along with establishment of well equipped experimental laboratories. Meanwhile few departments also took initiative to offer M.Phil and Ph.D degrees in Psychology 3 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Decade of 80s was signified with the establishment of increased number of departments of psychology in the affiliated colleges of public sector universities. Training institutes for clinical psychologists were also established. Different national associations of psychology were also formed. 4 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
National Associations of Psychology in Pakistan Pakistan Psychological Association (1968) Pakistan Association of Clinical Psychologists (1988) Advancement of Muslim Psychology (1988) Main objectives of associations include: Promoting the status of psychology in Pakistan Enhancing awareness among public Providing guidance and training to students Facilitating research and convening conferences, seminars, and workshops. 5 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Teaching Psychology in Pakistan At present there are more than 30 independent departments of psychology at private and public sector universities and affiliated colleges. In academic settings, psychology is not part of school curriculum till grade 10. Offered as elective course of General Psychology in grade 11 and 12. In graduate program, more credit hours are offered with major in Psychology. In masters program, psychology can be opted as a major for specialization. Students have to take at least 60 credit hrs. courses in various fields of psychology along with focus on specialized courses. 6 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
In Pakistan, specialization offered at Masters level include clinical psychology, educational psychology, I/O psychology, counseling & guidance, psychometrics, developmental psychopathology, and gender psychology. With the proliferation of masters programs in various colleges and universities, there has been a remarkable increase in the number of psychologists. Allied disciplines like education, management sciences, special education, and home economics also offered psychology courses as a part of their curriculum. 7 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Universities in Pakistan have a uniform undergraduate curriculum regulated by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Post-graduate programs (both M.Phil and Ph.D) are offered in extensive number universities in Pakistan. M.Phil program is of 2 years with one year of coursework and one year of research Doctoral program is spanned over minimum three years (including course work, publication of research paper and producing dissertation). 8 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Common course works for M.Phil and Ph.D programs are advanced research methods and statistical data analysis by using different software packages. Areas of specializations include: counseling and guidance, community psychology, cross cultural psychology, I/O psychology, psychological assessment, psychopathology, school psychology and special education, and others. Method of instruction: undergraduate and graduate level: lecture based seminars, and group discussions, class presentations and field work Postgraduate programs: practical application is emphasized more than theory. 9 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Psychological Outreach Services Increase in urbanization: rise in psychosocial problems Further aggravated by the ever changing socio political scenarios in the country. Drug addiction, HIV, depression, suicide, unemployment, PTSD (floods & earthquake; internal displacement). Need to expand the role of psychologists in social and health sector. Strong dearth of corresponding ratio of psychologists available for the larger masses of population (in economically underdeveloped areas) 10 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Most of the clinical psychologists are working in public and private hospitals and clinics rendering mental health and psychological services. Selection centers in both civil services and armed forces have employed psychologists as experts in construction and administration of psychological tests. Very few educational institutions hire psychologists as school counselors. 11 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Research Trends Besides quantitative methods, mixed design research and qualitative techniques are used in exploring indigenous problems. Developmental psychopathology, educational, gender, and industrial-organizational psychology have shown marked increase in research and scientific exploration. Test construction, initial reliance on Western tests has been replaced by the development and validation studies conducted in relation to achievement, intelligence, aptitude, personality, and vocational interest. 12 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Children: Cognitive development of preschoolers, learning problems, educational abilities, playful behavior, self concept and achievement Clinical population: Aggression, conduct related issues, emotional and behavioral adjustment; prevalence and etiology of particular disorders. Organizational context and industrial /occupational settings. Women: sexual harassment, domestic violence, marital adjustment, physical and emotional abuse 13 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Culture specific problems: honor killing and gender discrimination. Special populations: disabled people, minority groups, and ethnic subgroups. Special feature of researches conducted in centre of excellence are the very first of their kind such as doctoral study conducted on the transgenders which also paved the way for their regular legislation in Pakistan which, in turn, is a milestone in the history of our country 14 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Future challenges and Prospects of Teaching Psychology in Pakistan More than 50% population of Pakistan is residing in rural areas Larger ratio of population under 18 years of age Migration to cosmopolitan cities is very common Swift shift in social issues which are the products of brisk transformations of social situation in Pakistan. Post 9/11 scenario: Affect on social, political, and economic levels. War against terrorism has an extensive and far reaching influence on the national and individual lives of Pakistani people 15 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Dire need to concentrate on these issues with corresponding solutions: Changes in the curriculum of psychology: Two prong purpose: A) Impart training to induce positive behaviors of resilience, religious tolerance, optimism and sense of civic responsibility. B) It will also facilitate enhanced understanding of culture specific etiological reasons for the disruptive actions. Psychologists need to work in congenial relationships with the psychiatrists, physicians, social workers, and other allied health professionals for the resolution of such problems. 16 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Journals Published in Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research (PJPR) Journal of Behavioral Sciences Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology Pakistan Journal of Psychology Pakistan Journal of Clinical Psychology Pakistan Journal of Professional Psychology PJPR: abstracted and indexed in Proquest, PsycInfo, and Ulrich Periodical Directory, EBSCO, Vanderbilt E- Library, University of Washington Database, San Jose Library E-Catalogue, University of South Australia E- Catalogue, OhioLINK, MONASH University E-Library, TROVE National University of Australia, LexisNexis, E- Library of Georgia State University. 17 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Center of Excellence in Pakistan National Institute of Psychology (NIP) is a Center of Excellence in Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Established 1976, it has rendered services as a national organization in the educational sector. Top ranked institute in Pakistan for the last so many years. 18 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Main Focus Of NIP Advanced research on psychological issues National seminars and workshops Degree programs in psychology including M.Sc, M.Phil, and Ph.D. Research projects: funded by both government and non- government organizations. Receiving assistance from the British Council, International Center for Research and Development, United Nations Development Program, and United Nations Children’s Fund for the purpose of conducting specific research projects NIP is associated with Center of the Asian Program for Educational Innovation for Development (APEID). NIP is also a South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Center for Psychology. The Center confers admissions to students from SAARC countries into its degree programs. 19 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Advanced training courses in psychology for armed forces personnel and other organizational settings. Training programs related to children, test construction, research methods, advanced analysis and computing are also provided. Published extensive number of books, research monographs, manuals of indigenously developed tests Test Resource Centre provide a collection of more than 300 tests and scales for students and researchers from all over Pakistan A sate of art library with a collection of more than 10,000 books and considers as one of the most resourceful library in Pakistan Till 2013, NIP has awarded 526 M.Sc, 252 M.Phil and 32 PhD degrees to the successful students. 20 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Conclusion Although psychologists in Pakistan are actively involved in university teaching, basic and applied research and professional practice, still a lot of improvement is required to meet the need of current socio-political environmental changes. 21 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.
Conclusion 1) Alterations in curriculum: Address the national issues of the country and also keep abreast with the changing trends in the international teaching of psychology. 2) Research focus: Sectarianism, extremism, gender discrimination, honor killing, religious hostility, and patriarchy. 3) International linkages among the different departments of psychology should be established 4) Meticulous online projects: Varying universities across the globe 5) Pragmatic forum: Students to indulge themselves in cross cultural research and scientific investigations. 22 ICOPE-6, 2014, NAU.