4OBJECTIVESBy the end of the presentation, participants will be able to understand:the meaning of early sexual behaviorsfactors that influence Early Sexual Behaviorsthe implication of such behaviorsthe importance of abstaining from early sexual behaviors
5introductionHuman sexual behavior refers to the manner in which humans express and experience their sexuality. People engage in forms of sexual activities from time to time and for a wide range of reasons.
6Introduction contdHuman sexual activity has biological, physical and emotional aspects. Biologically it refers to the reproductive mechanism as well as the basic biological drive that exists in all species and can encompass sexual intercourse and sexual contact in all its forms. Emotional aspects deal with the intense personal bonds and emotions generated between sexual partners by a sexual activity.
7Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood Introduction contdAdolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood
8Searching for a unique identity is one of the problems that adolescents often face. At this age, role models such as sports players, rock stars performers are very popular, and adolescents often express a desire to be like their chosen role model. In the search of this identity, confusion can step in and adolescents may be prone to recklessness and risk-taking behaviors, such as substance abuse, crime and unsafe or risky sexual behavior.
9What is early sexual behavior? Attitudes that provoke or ginger an adolescent to engage in sexual activity which he or she is not physically, financially, psychological, socially ready to bear any consequences of its outcome.
10Development of the adolescent The adolescent growth spurt begins between the ages of 9 and 15. Hormonal changes involving the pituitary gland include an acceleration in growth rate, the development of pubic hair, changes in the structure and functioning of the reproductive organs.
11The adolescent develops firmer identity; ability to delay gratification; ability to think through ideas; ability to express ideas in words, a sense of humor; interests and emotions become more stable They develop the ability to make independent decisions; ability to compromise
12Some forms of Early sexual behavior among adolescents are as follows: Sexually explicit conversations with peers Obscenities and jokes within cultural norm Flirting and dating Masturbation
13 Engaging in homosexuality Oral sex( fingering, kissing ) Peeping at nude persons Engaging in homosexuality Oral sex( fingering, kissing )
14The following Factors influence the adolescent to engage in early sexual activities Individual characteristics such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits and drug use Attitude towards male and female virginity Family characteristics such as parental status, father’s and mother’s educational status and socioeconomic status of the family Group and peer influence Urbanization and migration Exposure to the mass media(radio, television, newspapers, internet/adult targeted programmes)
15Factors of early sexual behaviors (contd) Curiosity
16Implications of sexual behaviors If we put morality and religion aside, some of the medical reasons why this issue is important are as follows: Prone to infections Early sexual behaviors increase the likelihood of contracting a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI).Even non-fatal STI's, such as Chlamydia, are associated with adverse outcomes including ectopic pregnancies and infertility.
30Psychological effects Can engender a sense of shame or guiltPush a couple apartRaise unrealistic expectations in marriageEarly sexual activity seriously undermines girls’ ability to form stable marriages as adults.
31Some medical effects of kissing and oral sex When partners engage in deep kissing or any form of oral sex, be it sucking, licking, etc. they exchange bodily fluid, which in many cases contain various germs and complex viruses which are very difficult to cure, these acts can contribute to the individuals involved contracting various STD’s like throat cancer, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B and even the killer disease HIV/AIDS
32 The risk of abortionAdolescent girls who have more non-marital sexual partners are more likely to have abortions.. Abortion can cause serious damage to the womb and the reproductive organs of the individual. It can increase infection rates and even result in death
36Single Parenting (implications contd.) Adolescent girls who begin sexual activity at an early age are far more likely to become pregnant and give birth out-of-wedlock. Nearly 40 percent of girls who commence sexual activity at ages 13 or 14 gives birth outside marriage. By contrast, 9 percent of adolescent girls who begin sexual activity at ages 21 or 22 will give birth outside marriage.
39School drop out (implications contd) The adolescent girl will eventually become a school dropout as a result of pregnancy or may be neglected by parents for engaging in sexual activities. This will cause her future and can even go a long way to affect her generation.
40Delay in education (implications contd) The adolescent girl who becomes pregnant and gives birth, will have to stop schooling and come back to continue, which will delay her educational process.
41Early fatherhood (implications contd) The adolescent male who impregnates a girl will eventually become an adolescent father. This means that, he has to deal with all the complex and dynamic adult world while he is still a school boy, which will affect his emotions and development.
42Harmful side effects of contraceptives Most contraceptives have side effects, the continuous use of these drugs will affect the health of the adolescent girl. This can cause various health complications and infections.
43Resorting to Homosexuality (implications contd) Some adolescents in trying to avoid pregnancy and as a reason of some biological or psychological difficulties resort to the use of material to replace the male organ in the case of lesbians and the practice of anal sex by gays which have serious effects on the individual involved in the act and the society as a whole. There is the increase in contracting infections, anal cancer, cervical cancer, genital warts. It also affects the psychological stability of the individual which breeds low self-esteem, shame, depression, suicide tendencies.
44Poverty (implication contd) Early sexual activity is linked to higher levels of child and maternal poverty. mothers who began sexual activity in their early 20s were poor at the time of the survey. This shows that most adolescent parent will have to struggle through life to cater for children they did not plan on having. They will in effect lose their reputation along with their virginity, friends and the respect of other significant others. Immature adolescent may even lose their lives in birth delivery.
45Prevention and management of Early Sexual Behavior Carefulness in group involvement.Students should avoid bad groups and friends; they should also avoid circumstances that will arouse their sexual desire or passion, examples watching pornographic pictures or videos, peeping at nude person and reading romantic novels.
46Exercise and spiritual development Teens should engage in activities that will build them physically, psychologically, socially and spiritually to remain committed to developing healthy and better future life style.
47Abstinence (prevention contd) The act or practice of refraining from indulging in sexual activities is the best way to go about the prevention of the implications of early sexual activities.Abstinence positively affect the psychological stability of the teen, it help him/her to develop a high self-esteem. He is respected in the society and he personally develops as a teen should without the intervention of health and emotional risk.
49Focusing on education and future career (prevention contd) The adolescent should channel all his/her energy and abilities into achieving his dreams and aspirations to assist him live a better life in the near future
50Seek counseling (prevention contd) Discussing sexual issues with the counselor is the best way to get correct information to assist him to develop in a holistic manner.
51Avoid watching or reading pornographic materials (prevention contd) The adolescent must detest from watching and reading any form of pornographic material which can arouse this desires and end him or her in deep trouble. This will enable the adolescent to develop better habits and traits.
52Attend sex education programmes/ workshops (prevention contd) Reviews indicate that programmes focusing on personal development (programmes that support and teach confidence, self-esteem, negotiation skills) and sex education instill a sense of pride and assurance in the teenager to develop a positive attitude toward sex and sex education.
53Importance of abstaining from early sexual behaviors The adolescent gains more respect and are accepted and embraced by the society. The adolescent student will develop a stable psychological frame of mind which will enhance him/her to focus on academic work. It enables the adolescent to prevent teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and other sexually transmitted diseases. In the future, the adolescent will enjoy stable and happier marriages as a result of proper sexual and psychological development.
54RecommendationsParents, teachers and educational authorities should motivate, listen, accept and show interest in the lives of the adolescent. Parents should talk about values and morals and teach them how to achieve them. Adolescents should be supported to develop self-confidence, self-esteem and enjoy their state as young adults. Parents should take the pains to educate their adolescent children on the effect and benefits of healthy sexual development.
55The role of some stakeholders Counselors, educators and healthcare practitioners have essential roles in fostering sexual literacy and sexual health. Counselors should play the primary role in imparting to their students social, cultural and religious values regarding intimate and sexual relationships, whereas health and education professionals should play the primary role in providing information about sexuality and developing related social skills. . Counseling is not meant for only people who are perceived to be deviants but for all
56CONCLUSIONThe implications of early sexual behaviors are devastating, which outweigh the reasons why adolescents indulge in them. The decisions you make today go a long way to affect the whole course of your life.
57MAKE THE RIGHT DECISION TODAY CONCLUSIONMAKE THE RIGHT DECISION TODAY
58END OF THE PRESENTATION WE THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION