Presentation on theme: "Towards Understanding The Quran Introduction Of Tafsir."— Presentation transcript:
Towards Understanding The Quran Introduction Of Tafsir
Need and Methodology of Tafsir Scholars are required to elaborate upon the meanings of Allah SWT’s Speech and to convey the meanings Seek the meanings from proper resources Scholars are required to learn and convey the meanings, just as Allah SWT said, (And remember) when Allah took a covenant from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it, but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain. And indeed worst is that which they bought. (Al-Imran 3:187)
Need and Methodology of Tafsir And Allah SWT says Verily, those who purchase a small gain at the cost of Allah’s covenant and their oaths, they shall have no portion in the Hereafter (Paradise). Neither will Allah speak to them not look at them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they shall have a painful torment. (Al-Imran 3:77)
Need and Methodology of Tafsir For ignoring Allah SWT’s Book that was revealed to them For acquiring and indulging in the affairs of this life, all the while being distracted from adhering to Allah SWT’s Book. Allah SWT criticized the People of the scriptures – Jews and Christians – who came before us Refrain from doing what Allah SWT criticized the People of the Scriptures for Heed what Allah SWT commanded us Learn and comprehend the Book of Allah Convey all that is in the Book of Allah We Muslims are thus required to
Need and Methodology of Tafsir Allah SWT said Has the time not come for those who have believed that their hearts should become humbly submissive at the remembrance of Allah and what has come down of the truth? And let them not be like those who were given the Scripture before, and a long period passed over them, so their hearts hardened; and many of them are defiantly disobedient. Know that Allah gives life to the earth after its lifelessness. We have made clear to you the signs; perhaps you will understand. (Al-Hadid 57:16-17)
Sources for Tafsir QuranSunnah Statements of Companions Tafsir of Tabi’n
Sources of Tafsir - Quran Best method is to explain the Quran with the Quran itself. What is mentioned in general terms in one place in the Quran, is usually explained in another place. When one does not find this easily, he should look to the Sunnah.
Sources of Tafsir - Sunnah Purpose of Sunnah is to explain the Quran and elaborate upon its meanings. Allah SWT said, Surely, We have sent down to you (O Muhammad ﷺ )the Book (this Quran) in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you, so be not a pleader for the treacherous. (An-Nisa 4:105)
Sources of Tafsir - Sunnah Allah SWT said, And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad ﷺ )the Dhikr [reminder and advice (i.e; Quran)], that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought. (An-Nahl 16:44) This is why the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said ألا إنّي اُوتيتُ القُرْآنَ وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ “I was given the Quran and its equal with it”, in reference to the Sunnah. (Ahmad 4:131) Sunnah was a revelation from Allah SWT just as the Quran, althought it is not recited as the Quran is recited.
Sources of Tafsir – Statements of Companions If Tafsir not found in Quran or Sunnah, then refer to the statements of the Companions Companions were the most knowledgeable of Tafsir, for they witnessed the situations and incidents when Quran was revealed. Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Abdullah bin Masud said – “By He other than Whom there is no God, no Ayah in the Book of Allah was revealed but I have knowledge about whom and where it was revealed. Verily, if I know of a person who has more knowledge than me in the Book of Allah that the animals can reach (by travelling on them), I will travel to meet him.”
Sources of Tafsir – Statements of Companions Abdullah bin Abbas, the cousin of Messenger of Allah ﷺ, was a great scholar and explainer of the Quran. The Prophet ﷺ invoked Allah for the benefit of Ibn Abbas اللَّهٌمَّ فقِّهُ فِي الدِّينِ وَ عَلَّمْهُ التَّاوِيلَ O Allah! Teach him Fiqh in the religion and interpretation
Sources of Tafsir – Tafsir of Tabi’n Tab’in are second generation of Islam. If Tafsir not found in Quran, the Sunnah, or with the Companions, then refer to the Tafsir of Tabi’n.
Sources of Tafsir – Tafsir of Tabi’n Mujahid bin Jabr – He reviewed the Mushaf with Ibn Abbas thrice from beginning to end asking him about each and every Ayat in it. Said bin Jubayr Ikrimah – the freed servant of Ibn Abbas Ata bin Abi Rabah Al-Hasan Al-Basri Masruq bin Al-Ajda Sa’id bin Al-Musayyib Abu Al-’Aliyah Ar-Rabi’ bin Anas Qatadah Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim Illustrious Tabi’n whose Tafsir scholars refer to
Unreliable Sources for Tafsir Unreliable Sources Israelite Narrations Tafsir by mere Opinion Scientific Theory
Unreliable Sources for Tafsir Israelite Narrations Should only be used as supporting evidence, not as evidence themselves. Types of these narrations Authentic – we have something in our religion that testifies to its truth. False – Based on what we have in our religion. Unconfirmed – We neither affirm nor deny this type. We are allowed to narrate it.
Unreliable Sources for Tafsir Mere Opinion It is prohibited to indulge in Tafsir by mere opinion. Explain what one has knowledge of, silence otherwise. For instance, Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) reported that Abu Ma’mar said that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “Which land will carry me and which heaven will shade me if I said about Allah’s Book that which I have no knowledge of?”
Unreliable Sources for Tafsir Mere Opinion Muhammad bin Jarir reported that Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet ﷺ said, مَنْ قاَلَ فِي الْقُرْانِ بِرَأْيِهِ أَوْ بِماَ لاَ يَعْلَمُ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ Whoever explains the Quran with his opinion or what he has no knowledge of, then let him assume his seat in the Fire.
Unreliable Sources for Tafsir Scientific Theory Some scientific theory are hypothesis and educated guesses. Quran is absolute undeniable fact ( قطعي )
Makki & Madani Surah Scholars have three opinions in regard to this Makki surahs are those that were revealed in Makkah (regardless of whether it took place before or after Hijra) and Madani were those revealed in Madina. Makki surahs were those revealed to the Makkan community/audience, and madani surahs are those revealed for the sake of Madinan community/audience. Abu Ubayd narrates in Fadha'il al-Quran from Maymūn Ibn Mehrān: “whenever in the Quran it says 'O mankind', or ‘O children of Adam’ and it is a Meccan surah. And where it says, ‘O you who believe’ then it is a Madani surah.” A Makki Surah is that which was revealed before the Hijra even if it was not in the city of Makka. And a Madani Surah is that which was revealed after the Hijra even if the verse was revealed in Makkah.
Importance of knowing Makki & Madani Surah To recognize the Nāsikh (abrogating) & Mansūkh (abrogated) verses and chapters. To recognize the gradual history of the Divine Law and the wisdom behind it. To build trust and reliance that the Quran has reached us free from error and alteration.
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