2Introduction to Narrative Form Narrative is a fundamental way that humans make sense of the worldNarrative form is most common in fictional films, but can appear in other basic types of film, like documentary
3Introduction to Narrative Form Because stories are all around us, we go to a narrative film with definite expectations.We assume there will be characters and some action that will involve them with one another.We expect a series of events that will connect in some way.
4Introduction to Narrative Form We expect that conflicts will arise and achieve a climax--a resolution, or a new perspective of them.As the viewer watches the film, they pick up on cues, remember information, anticipates what will happen next, and participates in the creation of the film’s form.
5Introduction to Narrative Form The film shapes expectations by arousing curiosity, suspense, and surprise.The ending satisfies or cheats the viewer’s expectations formed by the film as a whole.The ending may activate memory by cueing the viewer to review earlier events with a new understanding.
6Introduction to Narrative Form As we examine narrative form, notice how it engages the viewer in a dynamic activity.
8What is Narrative?A chain of events in cause-effect relationship occurring in time and space.Narrative is what we usually mean when we say story, but story has a more specific meaning in the context of film.The three aspects of narrative are: Causality, Time, and Space.
9What is Narrative?Another formal principle that may affect the film is parallelism, which creates a similarity among different elements.A narrative may cue us to compare characters, settings, situations, times of day or any other elements.
10What is Narrative?Parallelism allows films to become richer and more complex than if it focused on one character.
11Story and PlotWe make sense of a narrative by identifying its events and linking them by cause and effect, time, and space.Also, we often infer events that are not explicitly presented.We recognize the presence of material that is extraneous to the story world.
12StoryThe set of all the events in a narrative, both the ones explicitly shown and those the viewer infers, constitutes the story.The story includes events clearly shown as well as events not shown, but presumed by the viewer.The total world of the story is called diegesis.
13PlotPlot is used to describe everything the viewer sees and hears in the film.The plot includes all of the story events shown.The plot includes added nondiegetic material, like credits and music.
14Story and Plot Story and plot overlap in parts and differ in others: Clearly shown events are a part of story and plot.The story goes beyond the plot by suggesting events we don’t see.The plot presents nondiegetic images and sounds that may affect our understanding of the story. See Diagram on next slide:
16Story and Plot Perspectives From the perspective of the filmmaker, the story is the sum total of all the events in the narrative.The filmmaker presents some of these events, making them part of the plot, and hints at others.The filmmaker can then add nondiegetic material to make a story into a plot.
17Story and Plot Perspectives For the viewer, there is only the plot.We create the story in our minds from the cues in the plot.We also recognize the added nondiegetic material.
18Cause and EffectIf narrative depends so much on cause and effect what kinds of things can function as causes in a narrative?
19Cause and EffectUsually the sources of cause and effect are characters.Most often characters are people.By causing and reacting to events, characters play roles within the film’s narrative system.Characters create causes and register effects; they make things happen and react to the twists and turns of events.
20Cause and EffectA “complex” character is made up of several different traits, which play a role in the narrative.A character that is “complex” or “well developed” has many traits that interact with each other.A minor character my only have one or two traits.
21Cause and EffectOther elements like disasters and nature can originate cause and effect too.What are some examples?Still, once these natural occurrences set the situation up, human traits, desires and goals take over to develop the narrative.
22Cause and EffectIn general, the viewer actively seeks to connect events by means of cause and effect.Given an event, we tend to think how it was caused and what it might cause.This is causal motivation.
23Cause and EffectThe detective film is a good example of cause and effect; story and plot.A murder is committed, we know the effect but not the causes- the killer, the reason, the method.Mystery depends on curiosity, our desire to know what happened before the plot action begins.
24Cause and EffectIt is the detective’s job to discover the missing causes- to name the killer, their reason and the method.In the mystery film, the climax is the revelation of earlier events in the story which we did not see.
25Cause and EffectThe plot may also present causes but withhold story effects, creating suspense and uncertainty in the viewer.The is the most disruptive at the end of the film and can leave a film open ended.
26TimeCauses and their effects are basic to narrative, but they take place in time.While watching a film the viewer constructs story time from what the plot presents.
27Time The plot may present events out of chronological order. Most plot do not show every detail from beginning to end.The story duration containing irrelevant parts is usually skipped.The plot may present the same event more than once.
28TimeThese options mean when making the story from the plot the viewer puts events in chronological order and assigns them some duration and frequency.
29Time The three main aspects of time in narrative form are: Order DurationFrequency
30Temporal OrderTemporal Order involves the sequence in which the chronological events of the story are arranged in the plot.Flashbacks and Flashforwards illustrate Order.
31Temporal OrderA flashback is simply a part of the story the plot presents out of chronological order.From the plot order we infer the story order.If the story order is ABCD, then a flashback could show the story like DABC.
32Temporal OrderSimilarly, a flashforward moves from present to future than back to present, ABDC.
33Temporal OrderTemporal Duration involves the time span presented in the plot and assumed to operate in the story.Story durationPlot durationScreen duration
34Temporal DurationStory duration includes all relevant events not shown in the plot.A film’s plot selects certain stretches of story duration.The sum of all these pieces of story duration produces plot duration.
35Temporal OrderThere is also screen duration, the time it takes to watch a film.The relationship among these is complex and different in every film, but the filmmaker can change screen duration independently from story or plot duration.
36Temporal OrderJust as plot duration selects from story duration, screen duration selects from plot duration.Screen duration can expand story time with editing, or compress it with a rapid series of shots like a montage.
37TimeTemporal Frequency involves the number of times any story event is shown in the plotNormally, a story event is shown only once in a plot, but sometimes a single story event may be shown many times.Examples: Run Lola Run
38TimeThe various ways that a film’s plot may manipulate story order, duration, and frequency illustrate how the spectator must actively participate in making sense of the narrative film.
39TimeThe plot supplies cues about chronological sequence, the time span of actions,and the number of times an event occurs and it is up to the viewer to make assumptions and inferences and to form expectations.
40Time Often we justify changes of time because of cause and effect. A flashback is due to an event that causes someone to remember the past.The plot will skip over years of story duration if they don’t contain important informationThe repetition of actions may communicate major causes very clearly to the viewer.
41SpaceNormally, the place of the story action is also that of the plot, but sometimes the viewer must imagine other spaces.Space can also become the basis for the plot pattern. This is common if the action is confined to a single place.
42OpeningsThe opening of a film provides a basis for what is to come and introduces us into the narrative.Sometimes, the plot will seek to arouse curiosity by bringing us into a series of actions that has already started.This is called opening in media res, or in the middle of things.Example: The Usual Suspects
43OpeningsSometimes, the film begins by telling us about the characters and their situations before any major actions occur.Some of the actions that took place before the plot started will be stated or suggested so that we can start to connect the whole story.Example: Amelie
44OpeningsThe part of the plot that lays out story events and character traits important in the opening situation is called the exposition.In general, the opening raises our expectations by setting up a specific range of possible causes for and effects of what we see.
45Patterns of Development As the plot proceeds, the causes and effects will define narrower patterns of development.Most patterns of development depend heavily on the ways that causes and effects create a change in a character’s situation.
46Patterns of Development The most common pattern is a change in knowledge.Often, a character learns something in the course of the action, with the most important knowledge coming at the final point of the plot.
47Patterns of Development A very common pattern of development is the goal-oriented plot, in which a character wants to gain a desired object or achieve a desired state of affairs.Plots based on searches would be an example.
48Patterns of Development A variation of the goal-oriented plot pattern is the investigation, typical of detective films.The protagonists goal is not an object , but information.
49Patterns of Development Time or space can also make plot patterns.A situation in the present may cause a series of flashbacks showing how events led up to the present situation.
50Patterns of Development The plot may also create a specific duration for the action, a deadline.Any given plot can combine these patterns.Many films using a journey pattern involve deadlines.
51Patterns of Development For any pattern of development, the viewer will create specific expectations that can be delayed, cheated or satisfied.In many films, the middle portion may delay an expected outcome.
52ClosingsThe narrative will usually resolve its causal issues by bringing the development to a high point, a climax.In the climax, the action is presented as having a narrow range of possible outcomes.
53ClosingsThe climax aims to lift the viewer to a high degree of tension or suspense.In the climax of many films, formal resolution combine with emotional satisfaction.
54NarrationNarration is the process by which the plot presents story information to the viewer.The purpose of narration is to achieve specific cinematic effects.For example, creating or heightening curiosity, suspense, surprises or expectations
55Aspects of NarrationThe most important elements of narration are the Range and Depth of information presented.Another important element is the use of a Narrator.
56Range of NarrationUnrestricted narration is when the viewer knows, sees and hears more than any of the characters.Such extremely knowledgeable narration is called omniscient narration.
57Range of NarrationThe opposite is Restricted Narration. This is when the viewer only knows, sees and hears what a major character experiences.Range is not absolute, it is a matter of degree and both kinds of narration create desired effects.
58Range of NarrationNarration is never completely unrestricted, there is always something we are not told, even if it is how the film will end.Typical unrestricted narration involves the plot shifting from character to character to change our source of information.
59Range of NarrationSimilarly, a completely restricted narration usually includes a few scenes that the main character is not present to witness.
60Range of NarrationThe plot’s range of story information crates a hierarchy of knowledge.At any given moment we can ask “Who knows what and when?”The viewer must be included among the “whos,” because we may get more knowledge than any one character.
61Range of NarrationRestricted narration tends to create greater curiosity and surprise for the viewer.In contrast, Unrestricted narration can help build suspense.
62Depth of NarrationDepth involves the continuum between objective and subjective perspective.Objective perspective would be restricted to what the character says and does.Subjective perspective shows the thoughts and feelings of the character. This includes memories, fantasies, dreams and hallucinations. Also called mental subjectivity.
63Depth of NarrationWe might see shots taken from a character’s visual standpoint, the point-of-view shot,Or hear what the character would hear, this is sound perspective.These would create a greater degree of subjectivity, called perceptual subjectivity.
64Depth of NarrationSubjective perspectives can increase the viewer’s identification with a character and heighten the expectations of their decisions.Objective perspectives can be an effective way of withholding information to create curiosity, suspense and surprise.
65NarrationMost films use varying degrees of both objective and subjective perspectives to create desired effects.Range and Depth of narration operate independently of each other and both are also used to varying degrees to shape the plot.
66NarrationIn general, films insert subjective moments into an overall objective perspective.Flashbacks are usually motivated as mental subjectivity, since the events we see are caused by a character recalling the past.
67NarrationYet once we are in the flashback, events will be presented from a objective standpoint.The may also include action that the character had no way of knowing.
68NarrationIn this case the film takes objective narration as a foundation from which we dive in search of subjective depth, but then we return to the objective narration.
69NarrationNarration, then, is the process by which the plot presents the story information to the viewer.This process may shift between restricted and unrestricted ranges of knowledge and varying degrees of objectivity and subjectivity.
70The NarratorNarration may also use a Narrator, a specific agent whose purpose is to tell the story.The narrator may also be a character in the story. This is common in detective stories and can add a more subjective perspective to the film.
71The NarratorSome films use a noncharacter narrator, which gives the film a more objective perspective. This is common in documentaries and is also called the “Voice of God”.Some films may not make it clear who is the narrator, if they are a character or not, to increase mystery or suspense.
72The NarratorIn any case, the viewer’s process of picking up cues, making expectations, and constructing an ongoing story out of the plot will be shaped by what the narrator tells or does not tell.
73Classical Hollywood Cinema Even though the number of possible narratives is unlimited, cinema has tended to be dominated by this single mode of narrative form.It is called “classical” because of its lengthy, stable and influential history in cinema,“Hollywood” because it developed its most elaborate form in American studio films.
74Classical Hollywood Cinema Classical Hollywood narrative form depends on individual characters decisions, choices and traits.Often an important trait is desire.This desire sets up a goal and the narrative’s development is achieving that goal.
75Classical Hollywood Cinema There is an opposition that creates conflict.The character that exemplifies this opposition is the “Antagonist”.While the main character the viewer follows is the “Protagonist”.
76Classical Hollywood Cinema Cause and effect imply change, therefore, characters and their traits are a strong source of causes and effects.Characters often desire something to be different from the way it is in the beginning.Motivation in classic narrative film will try to be as clear and complete as possible.
77Classical Hollywood Cinema Narration in “CHC” tends to be objective against various degrees of mental or perceptual subjectivity.“CHC” also tends toward unrestricted narration, unless the genre, like detective, depends on mystery.
78Classical Hollywood Cinema Most “CHC” display a strong degree of closure.The film seeks to complete its cause and effect chain with a climax and resolve all conflicts and mysteries.