2Sleep and DreamsIn 1959, New York disc jockey Peter Tripp stayed awake for 200 hours to raise money for charity.After about 50 hours, he started having mild hallucinations, seeing cobwebs in his shoes when there were none there and thinking that specs of dirt on the ground were actually bugs.
3Sleep and DreamsAfter 100 hours had gone by, he became delirious and saw a doctor’s tweed suit as a tangled mess of furry worms.Here, Peter Tripp is shown yawning at 48 hours. 2 hours prior to the onset of hallucinations.
4Sleep and DreamsAt roughly 120 hours, he needed to be given stimulants in order to keep him awake.At 150 hours, Peter was disoriented, not knowing who or where he was, and he became paranoid – he backed against a wall, letting no one pass behind him.
5Sleep and DreamsFinally, by 200 hours, his hallucinations had taken a sinister turn.Peter began to think that the doctor attempting to examine him was an undertaker coming to bury him.He was put to sleep by medical examiners and slept for 13 hours straight.Upon waking up, he asked for the morning paper as if nothing had happened.
6Sleep and Dreams So, how important is sleep to humans? Sleep is VITAL to mental health!As Peter Tripp found out, if a person is deprived of sleep, he or she will begin to have psychological symptoms.Most people think of sleep as a state of unconsciousness, punctuated by brief periods of dreaming.This is only partially correct.Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of brain activity and inactivity.
7Sleep and Dreams What is consciousness? Consciousness: Is a state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions.When we discuss altered states of consciousness, we mean people can have different levels of awareness.
8Sleep and Dreams There are many different levels of consciousness! For example;People who are fully aware with their attention focused on something are conscious of that something.A person who is not completely aware is in a different level of consciousness – an altered state of consciousnessSleep IS an altered state of consciousness!
9Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Sigmund Freud identified three levels of Consciousness.In his approach to consciousness, he claimed that preconscious ideas are not in your awareness now, but that you are able to recall them with some effort.Unconscious ideas are hidden and unretrievable.
11Why Do We Sleep We are not sure why people sleep. Sleep is characterized by unresponsiveness to the environment and usually limited physical mobility.There are many different theories as to why we sleep:Re-Charge?Conserve Energy?Clear our minds of useless information?…To dream?
12The Stages of Sleep As you begin to fall asleep… Your body temperature decreases.Your pulse rate slowly drops.Your breathing becomes slow and even.Gradually, your eyes close and your brain begins to record alpha waves on the EEG.These waves are associated with the absence of concentrated thought and relaxation.
13The Stages of Sleep Your body may slowly begin to twitch. Your eyes may begin to roll.Brief visual images may begin to flash across your mind…Although your eyelids are shut!All of this is happening as you enter Stage One sleep, the lightest level of sleep.
14The Stages of Sleep Early Stages – “Stage I Sleep” Your pulse slows a bit more and your muscles relax.Your breathing becomes uneven and your brain waves grow irregular.If you were awaken during this stage, you would report that you were “just drifting off” for a bit.This phase lasts for up to 10 minutes.
15The Stages of Sleep Early Stages – “Stage II Sleep” Your eyes roll slowly from side to side.Your brain waves quickly grow and fall from lows to highs and back again.Lasts roughly 30 minutesEarly Stages – “Stage III Sleep”Large amplitude waves begin to sweep through your brain every few seconds.Lasts roughly 10 minutes.
16The Stages of Sleep Later Stages – “Stage IV Sleep” This stage is the deepest sleep of all.It is VERY difficult to wake a sleeper during this stage.Large, regular waves move through your brain occurring more than 50% of the time.If you are awakened by a large noise or movement, you will most likely feel disoriented.Talking, Sleep-Walking, and Bed Wetting, all which occur in this stage – leave no trace on your memory.In Stage 4, something very odd also begins to happen…
17The Stages of Sleep Later Stages – “Stage IV Sleep” …Your eyes begin to move rapidly.You have entered a more rapid type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement.This is called REM sleep.
18The Stages of Sleep Later Stages – “REM Sleep” REM Sleep: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming.During REM sleep:Your Pulse rate and breathing become irregular, and the levels of adrenal and sexual hormones in your blood rise – as if you were in the middle of an intensely emotional experience.Often your face or hand muscles twitch…and the muscles in your arms and your legs actually become paralyzed.
19The Stages of Sleep Later Stages – “REM Sleep” If you were to “sharply” wake up during this sleep, you could awake to find your body partially paralyzed…Or you could be dripping in sweat and have no idea why.REM lasts for about minutes.After this period of time is over, you slowly go backwards through stages 4 – 1 until you awake.
20How Much Sleep Do We Need? Humans spend approximately one-third of their lives in sleep!The amount of sleep that you need to properly function varies greatly from person to person and time to time.Infants = 16, High School = 10, College = 8
21How Much Sleep Do We Need? Have you ever noticed that there are certain times of the day when you feel more alert and certain times when you feel more tired?People seem to have an internal biological clock that regulates the sleep – wakefulness cycle.Blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, , secretion of hormones and digestive enzymes, sensory sharpness, and elimination processes all follow what is called your “circadian rhythm.”
22How Much Sleep Do We Need? So…What is the Circadian Rhythm?Circadian Rhythm: The rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day.Circadian Rhythms do not control our sleep cycles; the environment and 24 hour day control our sleep cycles.For example: when you travel from New York to Moscow, your body is on a different time clock when you reach Moscow. You feel tired and disoriented.
23Sleep DisordersSometimes we may have problems falling asleep or have problems during sleep.These “sleep disorders” can interfere with your quality of life, personal health, and even endanger public safety.
24Sleep DisordersInsomnia: The failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day.This is usually a prolonged period of time.Insomnia can be caused by anxiety, depression, nervousness, alcohol, and drug use.
25Sleep DisordersSleep Apnea: A sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep.Can be characterized by hundreds of brief periods of snoring throughout the night.A blocking of the breathing passages actually causes the snoring; during this time the victim is in fact choking – the flow of the air to the lungs stops.The episode ends when low levels of oxygen or high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood trigger breathing reflexes.
26Sleep DisordersNarcolepsy: A condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling extremely sleepy during the day.Other symptoms include; unusual sleep and dream patterns, such as dreamlike hallucinations or of temporary paralysis.People with narcolepsy can have sleep attacks throughout the day.These sleep attacks are accompanied by brief periods of REM sleep.
27Sleep Disorders Nightmares and Night Terrors! Nightmares: Unpleasant dreams…Occur during the sleep phase of REM.A nightmare can often frighten the sleeper, who will usually wake with a vivid “movie” like memory of the dream.
29Sleep DisordersNight Terrors: Sleep disruptions that occur during Stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion.A night terror may last anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes.They involve screaming, sweating, confusion, and a rapid heart rate.The subject may suddenly awake from sleep or have a persistent fear that occurs at night.Subjects usually have no memory of night terrors.
30Sleep DisordersSleepwalking: Walking or carrying out daily behaviors while asleep.During this disorder, you are partly but now fully awake.You will have no memory of doing this.Sleepwalking is commonly associated with children, although some adults retain this ability.This disorder has been linked to stress, fatigue, and the use of sedative medicines in adults.
31Sleepwalking/talking Sleepwalking may be inherited.It is usually harmless, however, it may become dangerous if sleepwalkers fall or otherwise injure themselves.Sleepwalkers movement is often clumsy and unstable.Sleep talking is a common sleep disruption.Most people talk in their sleep much more often than they realize, only they do not remember it because it occurs during REM.
33DreamsWe call the mental activity that takes place during sleep “dreaming.”Everybody dreams, although most people are able to recall only a few, if any, of their dreams.Sleep researchers make a point of waking study participants at regular intervals in order to study their dreams.
34DreamsYour first few dreams are usually composed of vague thoughts left over from the days activities.Example; you may report that you were watching television in your dreams.As the night wears on, dreams become longer and more vivid and dramatic, especially dreams that take place during REM sleep.Because the amounts of time spent in REM sleep increase during the night, the last dream is likely to be the longest, and the one people remember when they wake up.However, most people can barely remember more than 15 minutes of a dream.
35The Content of DreamsActually…Dreams are usually very boring and mundane.The majority of dreams feature you sitting and watching whatever is going on around you.Occasionally though, you dream about something in an active sense. In other words, you are an active participant in your dream.These dreams are usually aggressive in nature and involve some form of strenuous recreational activity.
36Dream InterpretationDream interpretations have been discovered dating back to 5000 BC.Sigmund Freud believed that no matter how mundane, dreams contained clues to thoughts the dreamer is afraid to acknowledge while awake.Though many people are very skeptical about the idea of dreams portraying reality, Freud’s theories of subconscious desires and hopes still maintain today.
37Freud’s Freud listed certain distorting operations Condensation – one dream object stands for several associations and ideas;"dreams are brief and mundane in comparison with the range and wealth of the dream-thoughts."Displacement – a dream object's emotional significance is separated from its real object or content and attached to an entirely different one that does not raise the censor's suspicions.Representation – a thought is translated to visual images.Symbolism – a symbol replaces an action, person, or idea.
38Carl JungBelieved Freud's notion of dreams as representations of unfulfilled wishes to be simplistic and naïveNeed to account for the “dreamer”Archetypes = Each represents an unconscious attitude that is largely hidden to the conscious mind2 approaches to dream symbols1) Causal Approach = the symbol is reduced to certain fundamental tendencies2) Final Approach = will tell you additional things about the dreamer's attitudes
39ArchetypesThe Self, the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of individuationThe Shadow, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonethelessThe Anima, the feminine image in a man's psyche; or:The Animus, the masculine image in a woman's psycheThe Persona, how we present ourselves to the world, issubpersonality, the complex' and usually protects the Ego from negative images (acts like a mask)Although archetypes can take on innumerable forms, there are a few particularly notable, recurring archetypal images:
40More Archetypes The Child - innocence The Hero - bravery The Great Mother - caretakerThe Wise old man or Sage - wisdomThe Wise Old Woman/Man,The Trickster or Fox - deceiptThe Devil or Satan - evilThe Scarecrow - fearThe Mentor - Guidance
48HypnosisVictor Rausch entered a hypnotic trance by focusing on Chopin’s Lush Nocturne in E-Flat, as it was played in the movie “the Eddy Duchin Story”.Rausch visualized scenes from the movie and wrapped his mind in appealing thoughts.Rausch’s blood pressure and pulse remained steady for 75 minutes.During this 75 minutes, Rausch was undergoing a gallbladder operation!He had refused the anesthetic, and during the surgery, he swears he felt no pain – Just a little “tugging.” He even talked and joked with the surgical team during the procedure.After the surgery, he stood up and walked down the hall, riding the elevator to his hospital room.
49HypnosisSurgery without anesthesia may sound like a trick, but such operations have been performed by hypnotizing the patient.Although hypnosis still conjures up images of a circus magician saying, “you are getting sleepy, very sleepy…,” researchers are learning more about this mind-body connection.Doctors and therapists use hypnosis to help people quit smoking, lose weight, manage stress, overcome phobias, and diminish pain.
50Hypnosis So what exactly is hypnosis? Hypnosis: A state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility.Hmmm, how does it work?Well, at all times certain thoughts and sensations are filtered out of our awareness.For Example; as you read this sentence, you were probably not aware of the position of your feet until I called attention to that. By mentioning the position of your feet, your attention has now shifted to your feet – an area of the body that seconds before was outside of your consciousnessHypnosis shifts our perceptions in the same way.
51HypnosisHypnosis does not put a participant to sleep, as many people may believe.A hypnotic trance is quite different from sleep.In fact, participants become highly receptive and responsive to certain internal and external stimuli.In other words:They are able to focus their attention on one tiny aspect of reality and ignore all other inputs.
52Hypnosis – How its doneThe hypnotist induces a trance by slowly persuading a participant to relax and to lose interest in external distractions.Whether this takes a few minutes or much longer depends on the purpose of the hypnosis, the method of induction, and the participant’s past experiences with hypnosis.In an environment of trust, a participant with a rich imagination can become susceptible to hypnotic suggestions.
53HypnosisThe participant is not under the hypnotist’s control but can be convinced to do things that he or she may not want to do.The person is simply cooperating with the hypnotist.He or she is not acting outside of their control.
54Theories of HypnosisPsychologists do not agree about the nature of hypnosis.Some psychologists argue that hypnosis is in no way an altered state of consciousness, but simply suggestibility.According to these psychologists, if people are just given instructions and told to try their hardest, they will be able to do anything that hypnotized people can do.Others believe that there is a special hypnotic state that all people may be susceptible to. In other words, a separate, altered state of consciousness.What do you think?
55Uses of HypnosisHypnotists can suggest things for their participants to remember or forget when the trance is over.This is known as a Posthypnotic Suggestion!Posthypnotic Suggestion: A suggestion made during hypnosis that influences the participants behavior afterward.For example; a hypnotist can suppress memory by suggesting that after the person is awakened, she or he will be unable to hear the word “psychology.” When she or he comes out of the trance, the participant may report that some people around them are speaking strangely. The participant is not fully aware that that part of their consciousness has been blocked.
56BiofeedbackBiofeedback: The process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled.Biofeedback has been used to teach people to control a wide variety of physiological responses, including brain waves, heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, and sweat gland activity.The basic principle of biofeedback is simple: Feedback makes learning possible.
57BiofeedbackBiofeedback uses machines to tell people about very subtle, moment-to-moment changes in the body. People can then experiment with different thoughts and feelings while they watch how each one affects their bodies.In time, people can learn to change their physiological processes.Examples???
58Meditation What is meditation? Meditation: The focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation.Meditation has been practiced in various parts of the world for thousands of years.
59Approaches to Meditation There are 3 major approaches to meditation!Transcendental Meditation involves the repetition of a “mantra,” usually a Sanskrit phrase.The participant sits with eyes closed and meditates for minutes twice a day.
60Approaches to Meditation Mindfulness Meditation was developed from a Buddhist tradition.This form of meditation focuses on the present moment.For example; the participant may move his or her focus through the body from the tips of their toes to the top of their head, while paying particular attention to areas that cause pain.
61Approaches to Meditation Breath Meditation is a concentration on ones own respiration – the process of inhaling and exhaling.A mandala may be used to focus one’s attention during meditation.Researchers generally agree that most people can benefit from the sort of systemic relaxation that meditation provides.Meditation has been found to help people lower blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate.
63Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs: Chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered states of consciousness.These drugs interact with the central nervous system to alter a person’s mood, perception, and behavior.These drugs range from stimulants like caffeine in coffee and in cola drinks to depressants like alcohol to powerful hallucinogens like marijuana, mushrooms, and LSD!
64How do Drugs Work?Much like hormones, drugs are carried by the blood and taken up in target tissues in various parts of the body.Drugs are introduced to the body through a variety of routes that eventually bring the drugs into contact with capillaries.From there, drugs are gradually absorbed into your blood stream.**Then drug molecules act as neurotransmitters and hook onto the ends of nerve cells (neurons) and then send out their chemical messages.
65How Do Drugs Work?For Example; alcohol molecules may tell a nerve cell not to fire. (which effect is this? ) As more and more cells cease firing, the alcohol user becomes slower and may eventually lose consciousness.Another Example; LSD molecules may cause circuits in different areas of the brain to start firing together more rapidly (which effect???) instead of separately. This is what causes hallucinations.So…What do individual drugs do?
66Marijuana So what is marijuana? Marijuana: The dried leaves and flowers of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa) that produce an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested.The active ingredient in marijuana is a complex molecule called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which occurs naturally in the common weed Cannabis sativa (hemp.)
67Marijuana EffectsSensory experiences seemingly become greatly augmented – music sounds fuller, colors look brighter, smells are stronger, foods have stronger flavors, and other experiences are more intense than usual.Users may feel elated, the world may seem somehow more meaningful, and even the most ordinary events may take on extraordinary significance.Marijuana can also instill or heighten a variety of unpleasant experiences.If a person is frightened, unhappy, or depressed to begin with, the chances are good that taking the drug will blow the negative feelings out of proportion so that the user’s world, at least temporarily, becomes very upsetting.
68Marijuana If kids smoked marijuana… Wonder how he’ll do on an IQ test… Marijuana is not a physically addictive drug, as heroin is, but people may become psychologically addicted or dependent on the drug.Marijuana also disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to carry out mental and physical tasks.Research has also shown that adults who are habitually using marijuana scored lower than equal – IQ nonusers on a 12th grade academic achievement test.If kids smoked marijuana…Wonder how he’ll do on an IQ test…
69Hallucinations What are hallucinations? Hallucinations: Perceptions that have no direct external cause. These can be such things as seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, or feeling things that do not exist.Hypnosis, meditation, certain drugs, withdrawal from a drug to which one has become addicted, and psychological breakdown may produce hallucinations.
70HallucinationsHallucinations can also occur under “normal” conditions.People can hallucinate if deprived of sleep, during periods of high emotion, concentration, or even fatigue!!!
71Hallucinogens Psilocybin aka “shrooms” Hallucinogens: Drugs that often produce hallucinations.Hallucinogens can be found in plants that grow throughout the world.They have been used for their effects on consciousness since the earliest parts of human history.These drugs are so called psychedelics because they create a loss of contact with reality.These drugs can also create a false body image and cause loss of self, dreamlike fantasies, and hallucinations.Psilocybin aka “shrooms”
72HallucinogensThe best known, most extensively studied, and most potent hallucinogen is LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide).LSD: A potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought.Other names for LSD: Acid, Dots, Blotter, Mellow Yellow.
73Hallucinogens LSD is a synthetic substance. A dose of a few millionths of a gram has a noticeable effect; an average dose of 100 to 300 micrograms produces an experiential state, called a “trip,” that lasts from 6 to 14 hours.To control such small doses, the producers of LSD usually dissolve the drug into small pieces of paper called “stamps” or small sugar cubes called “dots.”
74L S D…Trippin’During an LSD trip, a person can experience any number of perceptions, often quite intense and rapidly changing.The person’s expectations, beliefs, mood, and the circumstances under which he or she took the “acid” can effect the experience, sometimes making it terrifying.Perceptual hallucinations are very common with the use of LSD.Users may experience hallucinatory progressions in which simple geometric forms evolve into surrealistic impossibilities.
75OpiatesOpiates, usually called narcotics, include opium, morphine, and heroin.Opiates produce:Analgesia, or pain reduction.Euphoria, which is sometimes described as a pleasurable state somewhere between wake and sleep.Constipation.
76OpiatesRegular use of opiates can and usually does, lead to physical addiction.An overdose of opiates will result in the loss of control of breathing – The user will then die from total respiratory failure.
77Opiates - Heroin Heroin. Heroin abuse is associated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and, particularly in users who inject the drug, infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.
78Opiates – Heroin Short term effects The short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after a single dose and disappear in a few hours.After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria ("rush") accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities.Following this initial euphoria, the user goes "on the nod," an alternately wakeful and drowsy state.Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system.
79Opiates – Heroin Long Term effects Long-term effects of heroin appear after repeated use for some period of time.Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulitis, and liver disease.Pulmonary complications, including various types of pneumonia, may result from the poor health condition of the abuser, as well as from heroin’s depressing effects on respiration.
80Opiates - Heroin With regular heroin use, tolerance develops. This means the abuser must use more heroin to achieve the same intensity of effect.As higher doses are used over time, physical dependence and addiction develop.With physical dependence, the body has adapted to the presence of the drug and withdrawal symptoms may occur if use is reduced or stopped.
81Opiates - HeroinWithdrawal, which in regular abusers may occur as early as a few hours after the last administration, produces drug craving, restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea and vomiting, cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), kicking movements ("kicking the habit"), and other symptoms.Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose and subside after about a week.Sudden withdrawal by heavily dependent users who are in poor health is occasionally fatal, although heroin withdrawal is considered less dangerous than alcohol or barbiturate withdrawal.
82Weak Stomach? Afraid of Needles? Look Away! This has to be extremely painful!
83AlcoholThe most widely used and abused mind-altering substance in the United States is…Alcohol!The consumption of alcohol is encouraged by advertisements and by social expectations and traditions.The immediate effect of alcohol is a general loosening of inhibitions.Despite its seeming stimulant effect, alcohol is actually a depressant that serves to inhibit the brain’s normal functions.
84AlcoholWhen people drink, they often act without the social constraint of self-control they normally apply to their behavior.The effects of using alcohol depend on the amount and frequency of drinking and the drinker’s body weight.As the amount consumed increases within a specific time, the drinker’s ability to function diminishes.
85AlcoholThe more a person drinks, their speech becomes slurred, they get blurred vision, and impaired judgment and memory.Permanent brain and liver damage and a change in personality can result from prolonged heavy use of alcohol.