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Words to Live By: 1. I have Kleptomania but when it gets bad, I take something for it. 2. The right shoes can change your life. Cinderella 3. My short.

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Presentation on theme: "Words to Live By: 1. I have Kleptomania but when it gets bad, I take something for it. 2. The right shoes can change your life. Cinderella 3. My short."— Presentation transcript:

1 Words to Live By: 1. I have Kleptomania but when it gets bad, I take something for it. 2. The right shoes can change your life. Cinderella 3. My short term memory is not as sharp as it used to be. 4. Besides that, my short term memory is not as sharp as it used to be. 5. I may be schizophrenic, but at least I have each other. 6. Relief: What trees do in The Spring. 1

2 A. Don’t bother me, I’m living happily ever after. B. Sarcasm is just one more service I offer. C. I pretend to work, they pretend to pay me. D. No worries. I started out with nothing and still have most of it left. E. Your failure to plan does not translate into my crisis. F. Errors have been made, others will be blamed Things I would LIKE to actually say 2

3 The Economy Is S O O O O Bad! The economy is so bad that I got a pre-declined credit card in the mail. The economy is so bad if the bank returns your check marked "Insufficient Funds," you get to call them and ask if they meant you or them? The economy is so bad Motel 6 has declared it will no longer leave the light on. The economy is so bad the Mafia is laying off judges. 3

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5 Supervisor Reasonable Suspicion Training Presenters J. “Mac” Allen, C-SAPA Howard Taylor, Ph.D. 5

6 FTA Educational Requirements Informational Material and Employee Assistance Hotline – If Available Training: Covered Employees – 1 hour Effects and Consequences of Drug Use Signs and Symptoms Training: Supervisors – 2 hours (Reasonable Suspicion) 1 hour on Alcohol Misuse 1 hour on Drug Misuse On Physical, Behavioral Speech and Performance Indicators of Use No Requirement for Recurrent Training 6

7 President, National Toxicology Specialists 27 Years Experience in Drug Testing Board Certified Forensic Toxicologist Former SAMHSA Lab Director Current SAMSHA Lab Inspector Breath Alcohol Technician Instructor Howard Taylor, Ph.D. Diplomate ABFT, ABCC-Toxicology 7

8 J. " Mac " Allen C-SAPA - Certified Substance Abuse Program Administrator BAT - Breath Alcohol Technician TrainerTrainer STT - Alcohol Screening Test Technician TrainerTrainer PI - Private Investigator, State of Tennessee. Retired Founder & Former Executive Director - SAPAA Principal – Superior Training Solutions BA Communications – University of Miami 8

9 Course Overview Section 1.Forward The Disease of Addiction, Educational Requirement, Why Test?, Types of Tests 2.Alcohol Section 2.Alcohol Signs, Symptoms, Performance Indicators of Misuse, Alcohol Concentration in the Body Section 3.Drugs Which Drugs Tested Signs, Symptoms, Performance Indicators of Abuse Drug Retention in the Body Section 4.Reasonable Suspicion Confrontation, Do’s and Don’ts, The 5 Step Process, Documentation 9

10 Addiction 47 million people addicted to cigarettes 1 4 million addicted to alcohol 14 million addicted to drugs other than alcohol 10

11 Addiction – Continued No-one checks “alcoholic” or “drug addict” as their career choice. No-one gets into recovery because they are having too much fun. 11

12 Addiction - continued Mid- Brain is the Primitive Brain Fight, Flight, Food, Fluids Sort of relay station for vision hearing, and bodily movement. Cortex is the Logical/Thinking Brain Memory, attention, thought, language, and consciousness. Drugs Hit the Primitive Mid-Brain!! 12

13 Methamphetamine 13

14 Warning Signs of Addiction C - Control Control or Cutback Use? A - Anger Angry if Confronted ? G - Guilt Guilty About Use ? E - Eye Opener Use in Morning ? It is Not hard to STOP - It is difficult to Stay STOPPED !!! 14

15 Who Uses ALCOHOL? / How Much? A.126 million or 53% of population 12+ drink B. 30 million or 29.3% are “binge” * or “heavy” ** C. 19 million or 6.5% admit either drinking on the job or just prior to going to work * 58 million Americans, 12 + Binged - 5 Drinks at one time in last 30. ** 17 million Americans, 12+ report Heavy – 5 or more, 5 x’s or more

16 Is the Problem Real? Who Uses Drugs ? 75 % are Employed White (8.2%), Black (10.1%), Hispanic (6.2%), Multiracial (14.7%) y/o (19.6%), 26 and older (5.9%) Male (9.9%), Female (6.3%) Source: 2008 Household Survey on Drug Use 16

17 Being on Drugs vs. Reality 17

18 What Does it Cost (More $ for Raises?) Abusers Work About 67 Cents of the Payroll’$ Dollar They are 5 Times More Likely to Have an Accident 16 Times More Likely to be Absent From Work Use 3 Times as Many Sick Benefits 5 Times as Likely to Seek Worker’s Comp Claim Plus Others: Time, theft, waste, employee loss, management headaches etc. 18

19 1. Used Marijuana in the last 30 days million 2. Used Psychotherapeutics in the last 30 days million 3. Used Cocaine in the past 30 days million Used Crack in the past 30 days - 359, Used Meth / Amp in the last 30 days - 314,000 MDMA (X) 555,000 (0.2 percent) used Ecstasy. 5. Used Heroin in the past 30 days – 800,000 (.045) 6. PCP is having a rather low use rate however, High School does show use Source: 2008 Household Survey on Drug Use 19

20 Reasons to Test Pre-Employment Random Post Accident Reasonable Suspicion Return to Duty - (ALL must be under Direct Observation) Follow-Up - (ALL must be under Direct Observation) 20

21 Reasonable Suspicion Request for test should be based on: A reasonable and articulated belief that the employee used prohibited drugs OR alcohol on the basis of specific, contemporaneous, A. AppearanceB. Behavior C. Speech D. Body Odor Based on Part , Supervisor or other company official, who is trained in detecting the signs and symptoms of drug use/alcohol misuse, must make the required observations 21

22 Refusal to Submit Failure to Appear Within a Reasonable Time Conduct that Clearly Obstructs Collection Leaves the Collection Area Refuses to Cooperate Failure to Raise Clothing for Direct Observation (if Required) Possess a Prosthetic Device Failure to Undergo a Medical Evaluation (if Required) Physician Determines that No Medical Explanation Exists for Failure to Provide a Sample Substitution Adulterants 22

23 Drugs That Are ‘Tested’ 1. Alcohol - including any over-the-counter medications that contain alcohol. 1. Marijuana - including Hashish, Hash Oil 2. Cocaine - including its powdered form and “rock”/free base form which is generally referred to as “Crack” 3. Amphetamines, Meth, MDMA – speed (X), Crystal, Crank, and Ice 4. Opiates - A category of analgesics/pain killers includes Opium, Codeine, Morphine, Demerol, Darvon, Percocet, Percodan, Fentanyl and others. It also includes Heroin which has no legal use 5. Phencyclidine - Angel Dust, PCP 23

24 Are we in any danger? Drugs Alcohol 10.0 million persons, aged 12+ reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs during the prior 12 months 30.0 million persons, aged 12+ reported driving under the influence of alcohol during the prior 12 months. 24

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26 Section 2 / Alcohol 2.Alcohol Section 2.Alcohol Definitions, Basics, Signs, Symptoms, Performance Indicators of Misuse, Alcohol Concentration in the Body Section 3.Drugs Which Drugs? Signs, Symptoms, Performance Indicators of Abuse Drug Retention in the Body Section 4.Reasonable Suspicion Testing Confrontation, Do’s and Don’ts, The 5 Step Process, Documentation 26

27 1. Basics……………….How much, Amount in drinks, Alcohol and the Body, Measuring inebriation 2. Definitions………….Training, How to apply the training, Use and abuse 3. The Problem Path...Social, Abusive, Alcoholism Documentable SIGNS. 27

28 Basics: Annual Alcohol Consumption/WHO 28

29 Basics: Which is More Intoxicating? Beer 12 oz x 5% = 0.6 oz of ethanol Wine 5 oz x 12% = 0.6 oz of ethanol Distilled Spirits (80 proof) 1.5 oz x 40 % = 0.6 oz of ethanol A Standard Serving - Contains the Same Amount of Ethyl Alcohol (0.6 oz) 29

30 Basics: Alcohol Absorption Full vs. Empty Stomach 30

31 Basics: Alcohol & The Body Absorbed Through Stomach and Small Intestine Takes 3-5 Minutes to Reach the Brain (Blood/Brain Barrier) Takes About Minutes For Absorption/Full Effect Food Slows Absorption Body Eliminates Alcohol at the Rate of a Drink Every Hour and a Half ONLY Time Works to Eliminate Alcohol NOT Cold Shower, Coffee, Exercise 31

32 Basics: Measurement of Alcohol (DOT Approved Methods) Breath / EBT Device Approved Method for DOT Testing.02 Remove from Duty.04 Disciplinary Action/SAP Values are Approximate to Blood Operators Must Meet Strict Training Requirements Saliva Approved for DOT Screen Only Positives Must be Confirmed by Breath 32

33 First : Required Training Content: The training, which shall be used by supervisors to determine whether Reasonable Suspicion exists to require a test, shall include the physical, behavioral, speech and performance indicators of probable use. (signs & symptoms) Second :: How Applied: Apply the indicators of probably alcohol use * through observations of specific contemporaneous physical appearances, behaviors, speech, body odors, and/or, performance indicators of an employee. (signs & symptoms) * Most regulations and polices require that the observations for requiring an alcohol test must be made: Just preceding : During or : Just after the period of the work day that is regulated. Definitions : Reasonable Suspicion Training & Requesting a Test 33

34 Arbitrary Definitions: Symptoms vs. Signs Symptoms: A characteristic indication of the existence of internal disorders or diseases especially when experienced as a change from normal functions or sensations. Bear in mind that medical professionals may categorize the abuser depending on what physical/bodily traits the person manifests. Signs: Outward physical manifestations that are observable and serve as evidence of some other action. These are not mutually exclusive. 34

35 Symptoms : Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism (Hard to cite/usually not common knowledge) High blood pressureNausea Fatigue Cirrhosis Pancreatitis Sweating Tremors/shakes Headaches Liver inflammationIncreased cancers Heart damage Hangovers at least once a weekBlackouts Yellowing skin/jaundicePsoriasis Mental health deterioration Body loses processing functions 35

36 Definitions : Stops on the Problem Path Drinking CONTINUUM with progressive stops and SIGNS : Stop 1. Social drinking – an occasional drink at a gathering or dinner Stop 2. Abusive – Still has control: Drinks frequently as a crutch to affect mood i.e., relax, escape, feel normal, and may move down the path to: A. Binge drinking – five drinks or more once in the last month B. Heavy drinking – five drinks or more 5x’s in the last month and then on to: Stop 3. Alcoholism – Disease/no control: The day may start with an ‘eye opener’ and drinking just continues 1. Early stage alcoholism 2. Middle stage alcoholism 3. Late stage alcoholism 36

37 Signs: This is a Microcosm of the ENTIRE Path/almost all the signs: drinks /.08Inhibitions down, friendlier, laughing/ inappropriate behavior Gets louder and less inhibited/ even less inhibited Repetitive speech topics/ unable to understand situation Talks at varying speeds and volume/ slurred speech 5 – 8 drinks /1.6 Loses fine motor skills/ poor machine skills/drops things Reaction time/ slower to react to spills / get out of the way Beginning to have balance problems/ staggering gate Very deliberate movement/ coordination problems Eye hand coordination decreases/ work becomes slow Slurred speech/ not able to communicate Fowl language/ inappropriate speech Problem Path: Stop #1 Watching the Inebriation process at work Extreme Social Drinking 37

38 The Problem Path: Social Drinking Stop #1 Continued Watching the Inebriation process at work Extreme Social Drinking 5– 8 drinks /1.6 Continued: Problems understanding questions/ confusion Difficulty remembering / inappropriate responses Drowsiness/ asleep on the job 9 – 10 drinks/2.0 Loss of critical reasoning skills/ dangerous behavior Loss of major muscle group control/ accident concern Mental confusion and exaggeration/ loss of faculties Nystagmus – involuntary eye movement 11 + drinks Stupor, unconsciousness, pass out, Alcohol Poisoning (18 drinks bottle) death Signs are almost generic: Add these to others in the course. All should trigger a test. 38

39 Define Stops #2 & #3: Abuse vs. Alcoholism 1.Alcohol Abuse is the misuse or overuse of alcohol on a recurrent basis to the detriment of: A. Relationships B. Family life C. Work D. Finances E. Safety 2. Alcoholism is Abuse taken a step further. The disease manifests through a physical compulsion coupled with a mental obsession to drink. It is characterized by: A. A craving for alcohol and a high tolerance B. A loss of ‘quantity’ control when drinking C. A physical dependence on the drug D. Withdrawal symptoms when alcohol stops being ingested 39

40 Abusive DrinkingStop #2 Not signs as much as behaviors that characterize the beginning of the Abuse path: 1.Drinks to become drunk 2.Drinks at a certain time each day 3.Becomes irritable if the pattern/time is disrupted 4.Drinks by themselves on purpose 5.Become aggravated if asked to justify their drinking or amount 6.Increase Social drinking to 3-5 a day / stashed bottle 7.Increased tolerance 8.Prefer to only go to functions where there is alcohol 9.Tend to have a favorite drink and complain if not available 10.Begin to have strained family relationships 11.Lose interest in prior hobbies and activities 40

41 Abusive Drinking - Stop #2 cont’d Workplace signs (in advance) Keep and review personnel records. Watch for significant changes in appearance, personality, attitude & Behavior. 1. Unexplainable sickness, and more frequent absences 2. Performance or conduct problems 3. Behavioral changes/reactions: a. Mild Responder – used to take everything without outward upset b. Average Responder – voiced opinions and would push back when justified but in a professional manner. c. Emotional Responder – reacts to both personal and workplace situations somewhat dramatically. 4. Accident problems or near misses 5. Difficulty getting along 41

42 Abusive Drinking Stop #2 Continued Signs in the workplace (Assumes you have not seen or smelled inebriation signs) 6. Increased instances of tardiness 7. Sloppy or incomplete work 8. Excuses for everything 9. Incessant apologies 10. Forgetfulness and declining good judgment 11. Missed quotas that used to be met 12. Increasingly strained relationships with coworkers 13. Difficulties just getting along 14. Difficulty being a team player 15. Less concerned about the safety of themselves & others 42

43 Signs, Symptoms and Performance Indicator: Alcoholism is normally progressive in nature, usually stems from abuse, and can be tracked through three different stages A. Early B. Middle C. Late. Each of these stages is accompanied by "denial“. The abuser is not willing to admit he or she has a problem and is considered to be in “a state of denial". Each stage of continuing abuse has distinctive signs and symptoms of related characteristics. 43

44 1.A general tardiness / late for the start of the workday 2.Coming back to the workplace/ late back after lunch and breaks 3.Leaving the workplace early/ frequently off clock non excused 4. Being overly sensitive to criticism/ difficult to manage 5. Increased complaints / difficulty finding co workers -work groups 6. Continual health complaints/ fit for performance 7. Lies about anything/ lack of trust 8. Denial of problems/ management problem 9. Decreased job performance/ unable to complete assignments Alcoholism: Problem Path Stop #3 Continued 44

45 1.Frequent absenteeism/ absences beyond allowed 2.Family emergencies/ frequent call in absences / unreliable 3.Deterioration in appearance/ appropriately dressed 4.Quick to anger re: job performance / insubordination and discipline 5.Poor attitude, concentration, and lack of discipline /follow direction 6.Hostile attitude on any alcohol / observed verbal altercations 7.Increased injuries/ fit for duty 8.Continued general breakdown in health and wellness (Good Supr. Syn.) 9.Increased need for medical attention/ fit for duty 10.Unreliable and inattentive work habits/ danger to co-workers 11.Borrows or steals money / policy on crime or garnishments 12.Increased requirement for disciplinary actions/ i nsubordination Alcoholism: Problem Path Stop #3 Continued 45

46 Brain’s function now depends on drug’s effect 1.Prolonged absences / and will be out as long as possible 2.Aggressive behavior / insubordination 3.Sleeping on the job /dangerous behavior 4.Balance / unsteady in any position 5.Obvious physical deterioration/ fit for duty 6.Marital problems/divorce/ lack of concentration - dangerous 7.Financial problems/ trouble with co workers - disruptive 8.Continuous health problems/ fit for duty and absences 9.Withdrawal symptoms/ allowed as such: nausea, tremors, seizures. 10.Drinking on the job/ physical signs & performance indicators 11.Contemplation of suicide/ so listen carefully Alcoholism: Problem Path Stop #3 Continued 46

47 A reading of 0.02 Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC) is equal to the consumption of approximately one cocktail, one five ounce glass of wine or one 12 ounce glass of beer in a one hour period. BrAC Observable BehaviorImpairment Present_________ None Ability to make good judgments affected Euphoria Diminution of attention, judgment, and control sensory-motor impairment, slowed information processing Excitement Loss of critical reasoning skills. impairment of perception, memory and comprehension Confusion Mental confusion, exaggerated emotions, stumbling, slurred speech Stupor Breakdowns in motor control Coma Unconsciousness Death Death occurs through loss of involuntary muscle function (breathing stops). 47

48 Is there an easy way to know when a test should be requested? Could any one be in any danger? Yes - Test Just My Opinion 48

49 Section 3 / Drugs Section 3.Drugs Which Drugs? Signs, Symptoms, Performance Indicators of Abuse, Drug Retention in the Body Section 4.Reasonable Suspicion Testing Confrontation, Do’s and Don’ts, The 5 Step Process, Documentation 49

50 50

51 1. Used Marijuana in the last 30 days million 2. Used Psychotherapeutics in the last 30 days million 3. Used Cocaine in the past 30 days million Used Crack in the past 30 days - 359, Used Meth / Amp in the last 30 days - 314,000 MDMA (X) 555,000 (0.2 percent) used Ecstasy. 5. Used Heroin in the past 30 days – 800,000 (.045) 6. Used PCP in the past 30 days - 51

52 Marijuana – What is it Marijuana is the mind-altering substance produced from a plant with the scientific name Cannabis sativa (the Hemp plant). The drug is used because its primary active chemical, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), may induce relaxation and heighten the senses. Get stoned or get high 52

53 Marijuana 53

54 Rolling a Marijuana Joint 54

55 Marijuana-Signs and Symptoms  Loud Talking and Bursts of Laughter  Sleepiness in Later Stages  Forgetfulness in Conversation  Reduced Concentration and Coordination  Inflammation in Whites of Eyes  Pupils Likely to Be Dilated  Munchies / Hunger  Odor Similar to Burnt Rope on Clothing or Breath  Tendency to Drive Cars Slowly, Below Speed Limit  Distorted Sense of Time and Distance  Loss of Interest in Activities 55

56 Distorted Sense of Motion & Space 56

57 Short Term Memory Issues 57

58 Cocaine / Crack Stimulant 58

59 Cocaine Crack 59

60 Cutting Coke into ‘Lines’ 60

61 Cocaine or “ Crack ”  Psychomotor Stimulation  Excessive Restless Activity / Difficulty Sitting Still  Lack of Interest in Food or Sleep  Irritable, Argumentative, Nervous / Severe Shifts in Mood – Paranoia in Larger Doses  Talkative (Conversation Often Lacks Continuity)  Subjects Change Rapidly  Runny Nose/ Nosebleeds / Chronic Nasal Problems  Frequent Lip Licking  Extremely Sensitive to Loud Noises. This Sensitivity Can Create Paranoia Which Leads to an Inability to Concentrate on Tasks 61

62 Ice - Methamphetamine 62

63 Methamphetamine 63

64 Meth/Amphetamine Both amphetamines and their cousins, methamphetamine are powerful central nervous system stimulants. On the street this classification of drugs is called ‘Speed’ because of the way the drugs speed up the bodily processes. They also increase heart rate which pumps adrenaline into the body. Generally, the users experience an extreme sense of well being, increased alertness, a hyper need for activity, decreased appetite and increased blood pressure. 64

65 Ice - Methamphetamine 65

66 Amphetamine/Methamphetamine  Dilated Pupils  Dry Mouth and Nose  Frequent Lip Licking  Excessive Restless Activity/ Difficulty Sitting Still  Lack of Interest in Food or Sleep  Irritable, Argumentative, Nervous  Talkative (Conversation Often Lacks Continuity)  Subjects Change Rapidly  Alertness, Wakefulness, Mood Elevation  Loss of Appetite, Exhaustion  Sense of Power and a False Sense of Security 66

67 Driving and Drugging! 67

68 Opium/Heroin 68

69 Opiates 69

70 Opiates – Signs and Symptoms  Mental Dullness  Lethargy and Drowsiness  Going Back and Forth From Alert to Drowsy  Cold, Moist Skin or "Gooseflesh"  Scratches Frequently  Slurred Speech  Constricted Pupils That Fail to Respond to Light  If Injected, Needle Tracks or Scars  Paraphernalia (Syringes, Spoons, Medical Droppers, Bent Spoons, Metal Bottle Caps, Small Glassine Bags or Foil Packets) 70

71 Phencyclidine “Dipper” ► 71

72 PCP “ Angel Dust ”  Unpredictable Behavior With Mood Swings Including Self- destructive Behavior  Disorientation With Agitation and Violence If Exposed to Excessive Sensory Stimulation  Fear, Terror, Rigid Muscles, Strange Gait  Deadened Sensory Perception, Possibly Unaware of Severe Injuries  Non-communicative Mask-like Facial Appearance  Hallucinations  Synaesthesia (See Sounds, Smell Colors)  Inability to Concentrate on Tasks Can Cause Accidents 72

73 Drug Retention Times Alcohol 1 Drink every 1 1/2 hours Marijuana (THC) Casual ( 3-4 Days ) Chronic ( Weeks ) Cocaine, Opiates, Amphetamines 2-3 Days PCP Up to 7 days (Acute) Weeks (Chronic) 73

74 Section 4 / Confrontation Section 4.Reasonable Suspicion Testing Confrontation, Do’s and Don’ts, The 5 Step Process, Documentation 74

75 Reasonable Suspicion Request for test should be based on: A reasonable and articulated belief that the employee used prohibited drugs OR alcohol on the basis of specific, contemporaneous, A. AppearanceB. Behavior C. Speech D. Body Odor Based on Part , a Supervisor or other company official, who is trained in detecting the signs and symptoms of drug use/alcohol misuse, must make the required observations 75

76 Reasonable Suspicion Testing Based On Specific Contemporaneous Articulable Documentation Concerning: Appearance Behavior Speech Body Odors 76

77 Confrontation Tips Review Policy Requirements for Reasonable Suspicion Testing ! Speak to the Employee Directly Interview in a Private Location Show Concern for Employee Listen to Employee - Do NOT Play Counselor Discuss Job Performance and Expectations Stick to Specific, Contemporaneous and Articulable Facts Get a Partner Concerning: Appearance, Behavior Speech or Body Odor And DO! 77

78 Confrontation DOs and DON’Ts DO remember problems get worse when left untreated. DO conduct the interview in a private place. DO plan exactly what steps you intend to cover in the interview. DO emphasize you are only concerned with performance, and safety. (If performance, have numbers.) DON’T cover for people. (Don’t enable.) DON’T try to diagnose the problem. Performance and safety. DON’T moralize in any way. Performance and safety. DON’T discuss drug or alcohol use. Performance and safety. DON’T be mislead by sympathy–evoking tactics. DON’T make threats that you can’t or don’t intend to carry out. 78

79 Reasonable Suspicion Testing Step 1 : Removal of Employee to Private Area Step 2: Interview/Discuss/Assess Step 3: Drive Employee to Collection Site Step 4: Perform Collection/Breath test Step 5: Drive Employee Home Step 6: Documentation A. Documentation if delayed B. We recommended written before leaving work 79

80 Stay Calm /Think it Through/ 5 Step 1.Ask the employee to accompany you to a place of privacy. A. Refuses: Stay with them and have some call HR or security B. Remind them that position may have consequences. 2.Inform the employee you are concerned about their safety or behavior and based on company policy are going to have them driven to collection site. 3.Call ahead to the collection site whenever possible. Speed things up. 4.Have the employee driven home after collection. A.Have someone get out of the car, and either walk them to the door or B.Watch them go through the door. 5.Make certain the situation and details are clear in everyone’s mind. (I prefer written documentation even if not required.) 80

81 Ploy:Attempts to get you involved in personal problems. React:Only there to get the work done correctly and safely Ploy:Has excuses and explanations for everything, no matter what. React:Fine to listen a bit, but must inform them reasons make no difference. Ploy:Employee falls apart, cries, tells you how sorry they are. React:Stand up, “give them a minute to compose”, and leave the room. Ploy:Get pity by suggesting you ought to be more understanding. React:Fine to say you are sorry they are having to go through this, and then bring the conversation back around. Ploy:Becomes loud, angry, and tries to be intimidating. React:Either leave for a moment, or listen through it, and return to the original conversation. Ploy:Is very sorry and promises that things will change and not repeat. React:Pleased to hear that but the collection must go forward. 81

82 Step 1 of the 5 Step 82

83 Step 2 of the Five Step 83

84 Step 3 of the Five Step 84

85 Step 4 of the Five Step 85

86 Step 5 of the FIVE STEP Make sure you document the situation as quickly as possible once you have had the conversation and the collection process is proceeding. If written documentation is not required, we suggest you discuss the proceedings with the second supervisor and be sure details and the overall process has clarity. FYI: While written documentation is not always required, we believe it is best if supervisors who request Reasonable Suspicion Drug Tests have a written record of their observations prepared no later than 24 hours after the incident, or before the test result is released, whichever is earlier. Step 5. Documentation 86

87 !! Not So Fast!! New Rules for DOT Drug Testing –May 2010 ! New CCF Lower Cutoffs: Cocaine and Amphetamines Allowance for IITFs (Initial Test Facility) New Analytes – e.g. MDMA Heroin Test (MAM) on ALL samples 87

88 Thanks for your Attention J. Mac Allen Howard Taylor, PhD

89 Thanks for your attention! 89


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