Presentation on theme: "Ms. Leslie History 12. In the 1800s, Southern U.S. states passed racially discriminatory laws. Slavery abolished in the 1860’s."— Presentation transcript:
Ms. Leslie History 12
In the 1800s, Southern U.S. states passed racially discriminatory laws. Slavery abolished in the 1860’s
1. Racial Segregation (separation) Different schools, water fountains, theatres, waiting rooms, entrances, seating on buses upheld by the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896
2. disenfranchisement Not allowed to vote or have a say in public elections Complicated voter registration system Inferior schools = illiteracy 3. Denial of economic opportunities Not allowed to have a job and make their own money Had to work, unpaid, as slaves.
4. Acts of Violence – private and mass public KKK Physical Abuse (whipped, beaten)
Lynching ◦ Often done by a mob – the forced capture and hanging of a person ◦ Usually chased, beaten, and then hung ◦ Done in many cases where the “whites” wanted to get their own justice ◦ Made a public spectacle ◦ Photos of lynchings used to promote regions and often show “whites” who are happy
This is a famous picture, taken in 1930, showing two young black men accused of raping a white girl, hanged by a mob of 10,000 white men. The mob took them by force from the county jailhouse. Another black man was saved from lynching by the girl’s uncle who said he was innocent. Even if lynching photos were designed to boost white supremacy, the tortured bodies and grotesquely happy crowds ended up revolting many.
Definition: ◦ The rights belonging to an individual by virtue of citizenship, especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and by subsequent acts of Congress, including civil liberties, due process, equal protection of the laws, and freedom from discrimination.
The Civil Rights Movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law In the United States, it takes place1954 to 1968, particularly in the southern United States. The deep south was the most segregated
prior to the Civil Rights Movement of attempts to abolish discrimination initially including litigation and lobbying by organizations such as the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People).
by 1955, people were frustrated by the slow move toward desegregation by the government and the "massive resistance" by supporters of racial segregation and voter suppression. In defiance, citizens adopted a combined strategy of direct action with nonviolent resistance (civil disobedience).
In 1951, a class action suit was filed against the Board of Education of the City of Topeka, Kansas The suit called for the school district to reverse its policy of racial segregation. This is one of the starting points to the civil rights movement
The plaintiff, Oliver L. Brown, was a parent, a welder, an assistant pastor, and an African American. He was convinced to join the lawsuit by the NAACP. Brown's daughter Linda, a third grader, had to walk six blocks to her school bus stop to ride to Monroe Elementary, her segregated black school one mile (1.6 km) away, while Sumner Elementary, a white school, was seven blocks from her house.
The District Court ruled in favor of the Board of Education, citing the U.S. Supreme Court precedent set in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), The case was taken to the Supreme Court The Supreme Court combined five cases under the heading of Brown v. Board of Education.
was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that segregation denied black children equal education. May 17, 1954, the unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, racial segregation by law was ruled a violation of the United States Constitution.
Prior to 1955: ◦ “blacks” had to sit at the back of the bus – last 10 rows. ◦ “blacks” had to pay their fare at the front of the bus first, and then get on the bus through the back door Often drivers would take off before they had been able to board. At other times, drivers drove off as blacks boarded the bus, leaving them caught in the back doorway. But even worse was the insulting treatment African Americans received from white drivers; they were frequently cursed and called names.
1955: ◦ While sitting in the first row for blacks, refuses to get up from her seat to allow a white man to sit down ◦ Begins a “sit-in” ◦ Gets arrested for not moving
Inspires a series of boycotts including the Montgomery Bus Boycott in which “blacks” refuse to ride the bus for over a year
started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA, opposed the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. many historically significant figures of the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott, including Martin Luther King, Jr.
The boycott resulted in a crippling financial deficit for the Montgomery public transit system It lasted from December 1, 1955, with Rosa Parks’ “sit-in”, to December 20, 1956 when a federal ruling took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional
Little Rock Crisis (1957): considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement
After the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. the Board of Education, the NAACP attempted to register black students in previously all-white schools in cities throughout the South. In Little Rock, the capital city of Arkansas, the Little Rock School Board agreed to comply with the high court's ruling. would be implemented during the 1958 school year, which would begin in September 1957.
By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High, selected on the criteria of excellent grades and attendance ◦ nicknamed "Little Rock Nine"
segregationists threatened to hold protests at Central High and physically block the black students from entering the school. Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to support the segregationists on September 4, ◦ a line of soldiers blocked nine black students from attending high school President Dwight Eisenhower attempted to de- escalate the situation and warned the governor not to interfere with the Supreme Court's ruling.
The next day, the Mayor of Little Rock asked President Eisenhower to send federal troops to enforce integration and protect the nine students. On September 24, the President ordered the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army to Little Rock The 101st took positions immediately, and the nine students successfully entered the school on the next day, Wednesday, September 25, 1957.
By the end of September 1957, the nine were admitted to Little Rock Central High under the protection of the U.S. Army (and later the Arkansas National Guard), but they were still subjected to a year of physical and verbal abuse (spitting on them, calling them names) by many of the white students.
Uno (long) Uno a4k (short) a4k
Elected in 1960 Black population took him seriously on his vague promises of change The Supreme court started desegregation rulings the same year The Goven’t was slow to enforce the rulings
The public began to turn violent for want of change Kennedy sent 500 federal officers to Mississppi to enforce Blacks’ ability to attend university Violence continued - Kennedy tried to pass civil rights legislation but failed
Counter-culture lead by the nations youth - against the government, universities and armed forces Black sports athletes like Mohammad Ali proved Blacks could be successful These athletes became spokes men - Ali spoke against the large number of Blacks sent to Vietman
born January 15, 1929 Baptist minister and social activist who led the civil rights movement in the United States
King rose to national prominence through the organization of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, promoting nonviolent tactics such as the massive March on Washington (1963) to achieve civil rights. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964.
King’s hatred of racial segregation began when he was just a child ◦ At 6, no longer permitted to play with a white friend because they were now going to attend segregated schools ◦ Summer employment in the northern USA, as a teen, shows him how peaceful life was with intermixed races
King attends Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania, where he became acquainted with Mohandas Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolence
King was a pastor at a local Baptist church when Activists in his city formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to boycott the transit system and chose King as their leader.
Recognizing the need for a mass movement to capitalize on the successful Montgomery action, King set about organizing the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) ◦ gave him a base of operation throughout the South, as well as a national platform from which to speak. King lectured in all parts of the country and discussed race-related issues with civil-rights and religious leaders at home and abroad.
In late October 1960 he was arrested with 33 young people protesting segregation at the lunch counter in an Atlanta department store. Charges were dropped, but King was sentenced to Reidsville State Prison Farm
In the years from 1960 to 1965 King's influence reached its zenith. ◦ quickly caught the attention of the news media, particularly television. He understood the power of television to promote the struggle for civil rights his well-publicized tactics of active nonviolence brought allegiance of many blacks and liberal whites in all parts of the country, as well as support from the administrations of Presidents Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
In Birmingham, Alabama, in the spring of 1963, King's campaign to end segregation at lunch counters and in hiring practices drew nationwide attention when police turned dogs and fire hoses on the demonstrators. King was jailed along with large numbers of his supporters, including hundreds of schoolchildren.
From the Birmingham jail King wrote a letter in which he spelled out his philosophy of nonviolence Near the end of the Birmingham campaign, in an effort to draw together the multiple forces for peaceful change and to dramatize to the nation and to the world the importance of solving the U.S. racial problem, King helps organize the March on Washington.
◦ a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, ◦ The march was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations. ◦ Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 (police) to over 300,000 (leaders of the march). About 80% of the marchers were African American and 20% white and other ethnic groups. ◦ The march is widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965).
The march was condemned by Malcolm X, spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, who termed it the "farce on Washington".
On August 28, more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered airliners, and uncounted cars converged on Washington. All regularly scheduled planes, trains, and buses were also filled to capacity. The march began at the Washington Monument and ended at the Lincoln Memorial with a program of music and speakers. Representatives from each of the sponsoring organizations addressed the crowd from the podium at the Lincoln Memorial. Speakers included all six civil-rights leaders
King speaks at the March on Washington, his most famous speech “I Have a Dream”
"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self- evident, that all men are created equal.'" "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.“ "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
April 4, 1968 – Age 39 in Memphis Tennessee Was on a speech tour. Was standing on his hotel room balcony Shot once in the Face – died in the hospital Nationwide riots in 60 cities 300,000 people at his funeral Attacker – James Earl Ray –fugitive – arrested in London and died of Hep C in 1998
Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. By the time he was 13, his father had died and his mother had been placed in a mental hospital, with her children split up amongst various foster homes and orphanages.
He graduated from junior high at the top of his class. He dropped out when a favorite teacher tells him that his dream of becoming a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a n*gger" Moves to Harlem, New York where he committed petty crimes. By 1942 Malcolm was coordinating various narcotics, prostitution and gambling rings.
In 1946, arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and sentenced to 10 years in prison. ◦ he used the time to further his education. Malcolm began to study the teachings of the Nation of Islam (NOI) leader Elijah Muhammad. Elijah Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic and social success. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname "X."
Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. He taught that black people were the original people of the world, and that white people were a race of devils. that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.
Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people. He proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.
Malcolm's vivid personality captured the government's attention. As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm's bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group's activities.
In March 1964 Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. a black nationalist organization, The Organization of Afro-American Unity that would try to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans.
In 1964, as a Sunni Muslim, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia He also traveled extensively throughout Africa and the Middle East He believed that Islam could be the means by which racial problems could be overcome
After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement ◦ However, he felt that the civil rights movement should change its focus to human rights. By framing the African American struggle for equal rights as a fight for human rights, it would become an international issue and the movement could bring its complaint before the United Nations.
After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam, the NOI and its leaders began making threats against Malcolm X both in private and in public ◦ FBI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassination
On February 14, 1965 his home was firebombed – nobody was injured. One week later, however, Malcolm's enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement for the Organization of Afro-American Unity in the Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. He was shot nearly 15 times. He was pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital.
Kennedy’s Bill was finally passed by his successor, Lyndon Johnson The Civil Rights Act of 1964 extended voting rights and outlawed racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public It prohibited discrimination in public facilities, in government, and in employment, invalidating the segregation laws in the southern U.S. ◦ It became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring.
Allowed the Federal government to cut funding to any program that practiced discrimination
Barred unequal application of voter registration requirements. Outlawed discrimination in hotels, motels, restaurants, theaters, and all other public accommodations engaged in interstate commerce; exempted private clubs without defining the term "private.“ Prohibited state and municipal governments from denying access to public facilities on grounds of race, religion, gender, or ethnicity Encouraged the desegregation of public schools and authorized the U.S. Attorney General to file suits to enforce said act.
Expanded the Civil Rights Commission with additional powers, rules and procedures. Prevented discrimination by government agencies that receive federal funding prohibits discrimination by employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin Required compilation of voter-registration and voting data in geographic areas specified by the Commission on Civil Rights.
Made it easier to move civil rights cases from state courts with segregationist judges and all-white juries to federal court. Established the Community Relations Service, tasked with assisting in community disputes involving claims of discrimination.
One way of preventing Blacks from voting was that voters had to take a literacy test After many protests and sit ins Johnson finally passed the act eliminating that requirement
Ghettos led to violent protest in LA, New Jersey, and Detroit Mobs burned down their own ghettos and looted stores In LA 34 people killed, 875 injured and $200 million in property damage ‘burn baby burn’ Black power - Afro and clenched fist
1968 Mexico city Olympics Tommie Smithand John Carlos, Smith raised his right, black-gloved fist to represent Black Power, while Carlos's raised left fist represented black unity. Both were suspended, kicked out of the athletes village and received death threats
Militant group founded by Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton Called for blacks to arm themselves for liberation had marxist views