Art After the Renaissance Mannerism and the Baroque Movement began in Italy and spread though Europe. The art produced during these movements reflected the tension of religious upheaval and the spirituality of religious revival!
Mannerism The Reformation’s revival of religious values brought much political turmoil to Europe, especially in Italy. Mannerism in art, reflected this new environment of anxiousness and uncertainty by breaking down the High Renaissance principles of balance, harmony and moderation. The rules of proportion were deliberately ignored as elongated figures were used to show suffering, heightened emptions and religious ecstasy.
Mannerism El Greco El Greco – “The Greek” studied the elements of Renaissance painting in Venice. In his paintings, figures were elongated or contorted and he sometimes used unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of stormy greys.
The Baroque Period the baroque Mannerism was eventually replaced by a new movement – the baroque. Hapsburgs This movement was eagerly adopted by the Catholic reform movement as show in the richly detailed buildings at Catholic courts, especially those of the Hapsburgs in Madrid, Prague, Vienna, and Brussels. Baroque artists tried to bring together the classical ideals of the Renaissance and the spiritual feelings of the 16 th century religious revival.
The Baroque Period Baroque art and architecture reflected a search for power. Baroque churches and palaces were magnificent and richly detailed. Kings and Princes wanted people to be in awe of their power!
Gian Lorenzo Bernini Gian Lorenzo Bernini, was one of the greatest figures of the baroque period. Italian architect and sculptor. Completed St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Action, exuberance, and dramatic effects mark the work of Bernini in the interior of St. Peter’s.
The Baroque Period The Baroque painting style was known for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions. Caravaggio Caravaggio, an Italian artist used dramatic lighting to heighten emotions, to focus details and to isolate figures in his paintings. His work focused on the everyday experiences of people. He shocked some of his patrons by depicting religious figures as common people in everyday settings.
Rejected Renaissance balance, harmony, moderation Ignored rules of proportion Return to ideals of Renaissance art Action, exuberance & dramatic effects Detailed and ornate Began in Italy Emotional & Religious Themes
Golden Age of Literature In both England and Spain, writing for the theater reached new heights between 1580 and 1640.
England’s Shakespeare The period is often called the Elizabethan Era because so much of it fell within the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Of all the Elizabethan literature, non expressed the energy of the era better than drama. Of all the dramatists, non is more famous than William Shakespeare.
Shakespeare Shakespeare was a “complete man of the theatre” Although best known for his plays, he was also an actor and a shareholder in the chief theater company of the time. He wrote sonnets, had a keen insight into human psychology, which is shown in his tragedies and comedies.
Spain’s Cervantes and Vega Miguel de Cervantes One of the crowing achievements of the golden age of Spanish literature was the work of Miguel de Cervantes and his novel Don Quixote. In the two main characters of the novel, Cervantes presented the dual nature of the Spanish character – the knight, Don Quixote is the visionary so involved his is lofty ideals that he does not see the hard realities around him - In contrast the knight’s fat and earthly squire, Sancho Panzoa is a realist. The readers are left with the conviction that both visionary dreams and hard work of reality are necessary to the human condition.
Spain’s Cervantes and Vega Lope de Vega. Beginning in 1850, the standard for playwrights was set by Lope de Vega. He wrote about 1,500 plays in all – almost 500 of them survived till today. His plays are witty, charming, action- packed and realistic – he wrote to please his audience and satisfy public demand.
Discussion Questions: 1. What details in baroque architecture suggest awe- inspiring power? 2. What elements in Shakespeare’s plays would appeal to many people? What do his plays reveal about the human condition? 3. Analyze and Evaluate the theme of Cervantes’ Don Quixote – What is the value of possessing dreams? What is the value of understanding the realities of everyday life? What do you think would be proper balance of the two? 4. How did the Elizabethan theater experience reflect English society?