Unit 7 Topics Motivation theories Types of Motivation Emotion Stress
Motivation Basically, Motivations are feelings or ideas that cause us to act toward a goal. Motivations can be obvious and conscious, while others may be more subtle. There are several theories that exist for what motivates us and why.
Motivational Theories Drive Reduction theory One of the earliest theories on motivation was called the Drive Reduction theory. This theory states that our behavior is motivated by biological needs. Biological needs can range from food to water to shelter. (Remember primary reinforcers) Our body seeks Homeostasis, which is our balanced internal state. Most of us like to be warm with our thirst quenched and our belly full
Drive Reduction Theory When our body is out of it’s Homeostatic state, it seeks to return to it thus creating a drive, or motivation Drives can be categorized in two ways: Primary and Secondary Like reinforcers, Primary drives are biological needs while secondary drives are what we learn can lead us to satisfy primary drives. Drive reduction theory fails to explain, however, why we are motivated by things like thrills and excitement.
Arousal Theory Arousal theory argues that we seek optimum levels of excitement, or arousal(not always sexual) People with high optimum levels of excitement seek high excitement activities to meet their needs, and vice versa. The Yerkes-Dodson law demonstrates how people’s arousal levels can affect tasks they are performing. Easier tasks may be completed with high levels of arousal, but more complicated tasks are done more efficiently with low levels
Arousal Theory Another facet of Arousal theory is the Opponent-Process theory of Motivation. Basically, people have a Baseline state which we are usually at. We do like to do activities that stimulate us, but eventually feel the need(opponent process) to return to a baseline state. This can be a problem with addictive drugs when withdrawals happen upon returning to the Baseline state.
Incentive theory The Incentive theory closely relates to cognitive learning We learn to associate stimuli with rewards and punishment Once we have obtained a reward, or a reinforcer, we are motivated to obtain that same reward again. We are being pulled by our desires, not pushed by a need.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow theorized that not all needs are created equal. His hierarchy predicts which needs will be satisfied first First we satisfy biological needs, typically Survival and safety These needs are followed by emotional needs like love and belonging Finally we look to satisfy our needs like life goals and Self- actualization( a need to fulfill our unique personal potential)
Hunger Motivation Hunger is a significant factor in motivation. Without food, we die. The need for food drives us to do many things The Hypothalamus(remember unit 2) control and regulates important bodily functions like hunger, thirst, body temperature and sexual arousal The Lateral Hypothalamus regulates when we our hungry and the Ventromedial Hypothalamus dictates when we are satiated, or full
Set-Point Theory The set-point theory describes how the Hypothalamus decides which impulse to send. The Hypothalamus wants to maintain an optimum body weight. When we drop below this weight, our body’s metabolic rate drops and tells us we should eat. When we are above the optimal weight, our metabolism may increases and the Hypothalamus tells us to stop eating Not all researches agree on this theory. Learning and cognition may factor into weight gain and loss
Hunger Motivations Other motivations are derived from specific cues. External hunger cues relate to the attractiveness or availability of food. Internal cues stem from physical feelings of hunger. The Garcia effect refers to specific taste aversions(think back to conditioning)We are less likely to crave foods that we have had a negative experience with. Also, the culture we grow up in plays a huge role into the foods we desire.
Eating Disorders Eating disorders are a very prominent issue our current culture(especially the United States). Eating disorders can also be linked genetically to family history The three most common eating disorders are: Bulimia Anorexia Obesity
Bulimia Bulimia is the specific eating disorder in which people purge their food after eating Often times, Bulimics eat large amounts of food in a short time, followed by a purge. Purging can refer to vomiting, excessive exercise and laxatives.
Anorexia As with Bulimics, Anorexics are completely obsessed with their weight, however Anorexics maintain their weight differently Anorexics generally starve themselves to about 85% of their normal body weight Complications from Anorexia can lead to stunted growth, delayed puberty, reduction in bone mass, heart disease and even death
Obesity People diagnosed as Obese are often 100 pounds over their normal body weight. It stems from unhealthy eating habits and has been closely linked with depression and can be hereditary Obesity can be very dangerous leading to heart failure, stroke, high blood pressure, dementia and death.
Sexual Motivation Sexual Motivation is extremely vital for the continuation of a species The primary task for many species on Earth is reproduction Our sexual motivations are complex and result from biological and physiological factors
Sexual Motivation As we move up the biological scale from lower animals, to higher thinking animals like humans, sex becomes more intertwined with mental, cultural and emotional factors. In humans, seasonal (or monthly) changes may have an affect on sexual motivations Sexual response cycles also differ in men and women. There are 4 stages of our sexual response
Sexual Response Cycle Initial excitement : Genitals filled with blood, penis becomes erect, clitoris swells, heart rate and respiration increase Plateau Phase : Respiration and heart rate continue at heightened level, genitals secrete fluid in preparation for sex Orgasm : Rhythmic genital contractions, even higher heart rate and respiration, males ejaculate, woman may also have orgasm, pleasurable feeling of euphoria takes place Resolution phase : Respiration/heart rate slow, men experience refractory period while women may repeat immediately
Physiological Factors Sexual motivation in humans is not solely dictated by hormones. Sexual desire may be present even when ability to have sex is lost(accident victims) Erotic material may heighten desire to have sex Sexual advertisements are used widely because of how prone humans are to follow our sexual desires
Sexual Orientation Many studies have been conducted on reasons for alternate sexual orientations. Studies show that traumatic childhoods, parenting styles, masculinity/femininity and orientation of parents has little relation to sexual orientation There may be POSSIBLE research that shows different brain structures might differ in hetero and homosexuals Twin studies show that one twin is more likely to be gay if their twin is also gay
Social Motivation Often times we are heavily influenced by our peers and contemporaries to fit in. To be part of a social group or movement Other times we are motivated to challenge ourselves to master skills and gain knowledge. Achievement motivation refers to our desire to meet personal goals. Some people have much higher motivations than others
Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivations Intrinsic motivations are rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. Challenging yourself in an attempt to gain more knowledge is Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivations are rewards we get for accomplishments outside of ourselves such as paycheck bonuses, good grades and higher job status Extrinsic motivations are initially beneficial but over time, Intrinsic motivations are much more conducive to long term success
Conflicting Motivations Approach-Approach conflic t is when you must choose between two desirable outcomes. Avoidance-Avoidance conflict is when you must choose between two unattractive outcomes. Approach-avoidance conflicts occur when one event has positive and negative factors Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts are when you face multiple decisions that each have a plus and minus.
Emotion Emotional states are closely tied to our motivation. Emotions influence motivations and motivation influence emotion. They go hand in hand One of the first theories about emotion was created by William James and Carl Lange. They argued that we felt emotions because of biological changes caused by stress. Example: An intruder enters your house. Your heart races. This change in heart rate causes you to interpret your feelings as fear.
Emotion Walter Cannon and Philip Bard disagreed with the James- Lange assessment. They contended that a change in heart rate doesn’t necessarily relate to fear. It could relate to love, joy, embarrassment or anger. They also believed that the change in heart rate does not LEAD to fear but the two happen simultaneously. You see and intruder and your heart races creating fear
Two-Factor theory Another theory, the Two-factor theory argues that both our physical responses and our mental interpretations of a situation If your heart is racing and your mind is telling you that an intruder in your house is something that is scary, then the contextual combination of those two factors will lead to fear Furthermore, people who are already aroused are much more likely to have a reaction such as fear in this situation. Someone who had come home from a jog and found an intruder would be more scared than someone who woke up to an intruder.
Nonverbal Expressions of Emotion Most researchers agree that the ways in which we express emotions nonverbally(like facial expressions) are universal. Regardless of the culture we grew up in, we usually use the same facial expressions This was tested by showing pictures of facial expressions from one culture to another asking them to determine what the emotion was and seeing if the emotion matched the emotion at the time of the photo
Lie Detectors Lie detectors, also called Polygraphs, measure heart rate, blood pressure, skin perspiration and breathing A lie detector seeks to notice a difference in these factors between a question the test giver knows is the truth such as a person’s name vs where they were at during the time of a murder. Many people become nervous during Polygraphs even if innocent so easy questions are mixed in to see if there is any variations in biological components
Gender and Emotion The age old stigma is that women are more emotional than men. Is this true? Women do tend to be more emotionally expressive than men, but does that mean they are more emotional? Growing up boys learn to suppress their emotion and girls are encouraged to share feelings This may explain the reason for high violent crime rates in males vs females due to prolonged suppression of emotion
Stress Stress is studied along with motivation and emotion as a means of helping Psychologists further understand how humans can deal with stress. Stress can refer to specific events in our lives called stressors or the way we react to these changes in our environment( stress reactions) What causes stress amongst us?
Measuring Stress Two psychologists, Richard Rahe and Thomas Holmes, design a way to measure stress. They called it the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, or SRRS. When a person measured their stress using the SRRS they would describe changes in their life called LCUs (Life changing units. These would include a new job, buying a new car, birth of a child, divorce, paying for a child’s tuition, etc
Measuring Stress Different LCUs were assigned different value. Changing cable companies would obviously not be weighted as high as a divorce would be. Every additional LCU added to the SRRS increases your score. The higher the score, the more stress you are deemed to have, Additionally, the higher the score, the higher the likelihood of a person having a stress related disease. Perceptions of LCUs may differ from person to person so that may factor in as well. Ex: A person experiencing a third divorce might stress less than a person experiencing their first divorce
General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Seyle created what is called the General Adaptation Syndrome or G.A.S. The GAS describes the patterns we follow in regards to a stressful event The GAS theory explains documented problems with extended amounts and periods of stress
General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Reaction : During this stage heart rate increases, blood is diverted to the muscles needed to react to a stressful situation. The body readies itself to meet the challenge-SNS Resistance : The body and Sympathetic Nervous System remain on high alert. Hormones are released to maintain. Eventually the body begins to be depleted of resources Exhaustion : The PNS returns our body to a normal state. We are vulnerable to disease in this state if our bodily resources are depleted due to an extended stay in the Resistance stage.
Perceived Control The ways in which we perceive control over a situation may also contribute to our stress. The less in control of a situation we feel, the more stressed out we become. Tested with rats in cages receiving shocks. Rats who were in control of when shocks would stop were much less likely to develop ulcers than rates who did not have control. Also, victims in hospitals who have control over morphine will report less pain than those without control over amounts even if amount is exactly the same
Effects of Stress Stress can cause a variety of diseases and psychological conditions and should not be taken lightly Your heart, reproductive glands, stomach, bowel movements, liver, respiratory system and sexual desire can all be affected by stress. Depression may also follow Taking mental breaks, getting massages and meditation are all common ways to reduce stress. Remember, laughter is the best medicine