Presentation on theme: "Responses By Ben, Phoebe, Alan and Nathan. Modify the Loss Aid – vital for poor people Insurance – more useful for people in richer communities or countries."— Presentation transcript:
Modify the Loss Aid – vital for poor people Insurance – more useful for people in richer communities or countries Modify The Cause Environmental control Hazard prevention Only really possible for small scale hazards, landscapes/avalanches and floods Modify The Event Prediction and warning Community preparedness Education to change behaviour and prevent hazards realising dangers Modify Vulnerability Further environmental control Hazard avoidance by land-use zoning Hazard-resistant design (e.g. building design to resist earthquakes) Engineering defences useful for coastal and river floods Retro fitting of homes is possible for protection Increasingly Technological Holmes and Warn, 2008
Hazard Management Cycles A hazard management cycle requires the country that uses it to be prepared to mitigate before the hazard. Hazard management cycles don’t improve survival chances for future hazards because they focus on modifying loss rather than adaptation. Prevention and mitigation is required long before a hazard hits in order to heighten preparedness.
Factors that affect response Physical Geographical accessibility Type of hazard (scale, impact, magnitude, frequency) Topography of region Climate Human Population density Degree of community preparedness Technological resources Quality of engineering Scientific understanding Education and training Economic wealth Infrastructure Politics
MEDC Earthquake Response Kobe Earthquake, Japan 1995. The earthquake measured 6.9 Richter scale. Water, electricity and gas were fully working by July 1995 The railways were back in service by August 1995 134000 houses had been constructed by January 1999 Most new buildings were designed to be earthquake-proof However, there were problems supplying fresh water until April 1995 and the government were criticised for being too slow and turning down aid from other nations
LEDC Earthquake Response An earthquake measuring 7.3 on the Richter scale hit Haiti in January 2010 Oxfam reached 300000 people with aid within the first three months. They also introduced bottom-up initiatives to educate people and construct long-term sanitation services. The World Bank provided $100 million to support reconstruction and recovery The Disasters Emergency Committee improved the water supply of 340000 people and provided free medical care to 39000. “The Haiti Disaster”- Saget, 2010 Oxfam.org.uk, Freeman, 2011
Players The World Bank and insurers. Oxfam and other relief agencies. Countries or places that lie on fault lines (Philippines, California) – important role in managing situations, as well as in terms of community preparedness and education. Media – take on a warning role and are very important for remote communities. Emergency services – police, medical, fire, traffic control and the armed forces). NGOs in general.