2 TragedyA drama that ends in catastrophe—most often death— for the main characters.
3 Tragic HeroThe protagonist, or central character— the one with whom audiences identifyUsually falls or dies because of a character flaw or a cruel twist of fateOften has a high rank or status; shows strength while facing his or her destiny
4 FoilIs a character whose personality and attitude contrast sharply with those of another characterHighlights both characters’ traits—for example, a timid character can make a talkative one seem even chattier
5 Soliloquy Is a speech given by a character alone on stage Lets the audience know what the character is thinking or feeling
6 AsideIs a character’s remark, either to the audience or to another character, that others on stage do not hearReveals the character’s private thoughts
7 Dramatic IronyIs when the audience knows more than the characters—for example, the audience is aware of Romeo and Juliet’s tragic demise long before characters face itHelps build suspense
8 Comic ReliefIs a humorous scene or speech intended to lighten the moodServes to heighten the seriousness of the main action by contrast
9 AllusionAn indirect reference to a famous person, place, event, or literary work.
10 Stage Directions Instructions that are usually printed in italic type Serve as a guide to directors, set and lighting designers, performers, and readers