3 Literary 5 main parts of plot: Exposition – introduction to setting, characters, and often a hint to the conflictRising action – introduction to and development of the conflictClimax – the main turning point in the storyFalling action – attempt to resolve the conflictConclusion – resolution of or change to the conflictSubplot – a secondary or auxiliary plot in a filmSetting – time and place
4 Literary cont.Protagonist – The leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary workAntagonist – the person who is opposed to, struggles against or competes with the leading protagonistThe conflict between the two does not always indicate a true “good vs. evil” theme
5 Literary cont. Devices of fiction: Motif – a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc.Symbol – an object, person, idea, etc. used in film to stand for or suggest something elseForeshadowing – to show, indicate or suggest in advanceFlashback/forward – a scene in the movie set in a time earlier than/future to the main storyFoil – a person or thing that makes another seem better by contrastOpposition – antagonism or hostilityIrony – Events that seem deliberately contrary to what one expects, which usually makes the plot particularly amusing or dissatisfying to the viewer
6 TechnicalAll technical aspects are utilized to suggest a location, time period, economic situation and/or physical setting (castle, doctors office, school, the Great Depression etc.)Sets – where a movie is filmed – Not all movie sets are located in a studio; often, films are shot on location, which can still be described as the “set” of the sceneCostumes
7 TechnicalSoundDiegetic sound – the sound (be it music, dialogue, or sound effects) emanates from a source in the movie environment – can include characters talking, the sound of traffic or of a footstep, music from a radio, and any other sound that could logically be heard by a characterNondiegetic – sound that cannot logically be a part of the movie environment –can be the music we hear while the title is rolling or the music that appears seemingly out of nowhere to heighten a romantic scene
8 TechnicalLightingLow-key lighting – a lot of shadows with sharp contrasts between light and dark – Mysteries and suspense thrillers are also often shot in low-key light indicating that things are hidden, or that something unexpected can happen at any timeHigh-key lighting – characterized by brightness, openness, and light – Romantic comedies, musicals, and important scenes in family dramas, are shot with this lighting: characters’ motives are not hidden, nor are there likely to be many scares or sudden surprises – Individual lighting on a particular character can affect how we feel about that character.
9 TechnicalLightingSide lighting – where one side of the actor’s face is darker than the other – can hint at a character’s secrets or that the character is somehow torn between opposing forcesFront lighting – when a character is brightly lit, without any shadows appearing anywhere – Heroes and heroines are usually shot this way to show pureness and honesty
10 Technical Cont. Props: Make-up: Includes fake hair and hair styles Set props – stationary items on the stage (sofas, chairs, tables)Hand props – carried by the actors to enhance their character (swords, handbags, feather dusters)Make-up:Includes fake hair and hair styles
11 Performance Vocal expression: Nonverbal expression: Diction (correct words/enunciation)Articulation (pronunciation/dialect)VolumeNonverbal expression:Facial expressionsBody alignmentGestures and basic movement
13 Shot framingClose-up – see only the actor’s head from about the neck up; objects shot in close-up take up most of the screen – can show enormous amounts of detail, can reveal characters’ emotions, can be used to emphasize important objects and detailsMedium shot – actor seen from the waist up – good mix of emotions and details can be caught – most scenes filmed this wayLong shot – see the actor’s entire body; objects in this type of framing would appear to be seen from some distance – few emotions are seen but you can see the character’s surroundings
14 Camera anglesLow-angle – director positions the camera below a subject, looking up – has the effect of making the subject look larger and more powerful than it normally wouldHigh-angle – director places the camera above an object, looking down on it – has the effect of making a character look smaller than normal; it emphasizes a character’s weakness or powerlessnessEye-level – audience sees an object straight on – very neutral concerning emotion and power – most shots used in movies are eye-level because it is the normal way that we see each other in real life
15 Camera movementPan – when a stationary camera’s head moves left to right (or right to left), staying on the horizontal axis – often used to show the setting because it tends to reflect a typical movement of our own eyes when we take in a new sceneTilt – stationary camera’s head moves up and down on the vertical axis – often used to show the height of an object in a sceneZoom – focus of a stationary camera changes within a shot, as when a director zooms in to reveal a key clue in the mystery, or zooms out to show the character’s reaction to finding that clue.Dolly shot – refers to any time the camera itself moves, either on tracks, from a helicopter, on someone’s back, or in any other way – dolly shots move the audience with the action and keep us from feeling like spectators
16 Editing choiceCut – quickest way to move between images – editor joins two pieces of film (or two shots) together so that in the finished film it looks like an instantaneous change between shots – can be jarring or smooth depending upon the filmmaker’s purpose.Fade – the image seen on screen slowly fades to black or white or some other color – sometimes shows that time has passed, as when a couple in an older movie goes into a bedroom and the shot fades to gray; when the shot fades back in, they’re smoking a cigarette. Hmmmm. What happened? A fade can show that a segment of the film has ended (like a chapter in a book) – Fades tend to be slow paced and sometimes reflect a somber or pensive mood.Dissolve – an image on screen slowly fades away while the next image is slowly fading in – For a period of time, both images are on screen at the same time – Dissolves are used to connect images or to move between images in a smooth, rhythmic fashion
17 Length of takeLong takes – feels as if they unfold in real time, allowing the director to set up the scene realistically –the viewer often gets to decide where to look and what to look at, which creates a greater sense of realismShort take – typical in the quick-cutting productions such as MTV videos in which a single shot can last under a second – creates a much more rapid, energetic style and pace – Action films often use increasingly short takes to create suspense and drama in their fight sequences or car chases – When an editor uses a short take, they are directing our attention to what is important, in contrast to the long take in which the viewer has an opportunity to examine the scene
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