Presentation on theme: "KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi oleh: Soemarno PSDL-PPSUB April 2013."— Presentation transcript:
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi oleh: Soemarno PSDL-PPSUB April 2013
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan keamanan publik secara proporsional dari bahaya-bahaya lingkungan yang diakibatkan oleh proses-proses alamiah atau buatan- manusia karena keteledoran, kecelakaan, salah-kelola, atau kesengajaan. Ketahanan lingkungan merupakan bagian dari ketahanan nasional. Ketahnaan lingkungan mengkaji ancaman akibat kejadian lingkungan, kecenderungan ketahanan nasional dan unsur-unsur kekuatan naisonal. Sumber: http://definitions.uslegal.com/e/environmental-security/… diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Restorasi Lingkungan merupakan proses dimana risiko limbah berbahaya dihilangkan atau diminimumkan hingga tingkat aman dengan jalan pembersihan lingkungan. Restorasi lingkungan juga dimaknai sebagai restorasi ekologis atau remediasi lingkungan.
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan keamanan publik dari bahaya-bahaya lingkungan yang diakibatkan oleh proses-proses alamiah atau buatan-manusia karena keteledoran, kecelakaan, salah-kelola, atau kesengajaan, dan yang berasal dari dalam negeri maupun luar negeri. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Environmental security is the state of human-environment dynamics that includes restoration of the environment damaged by military actions, and amelioration of resource scarcities, environmental degradation, and biological threats that could lead to social disorder and conflict. KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan siklus pengelolaan sumberdaya alam menjadi produk, menjadi limbah, menjadi sumberdaya alam lainnya, dengan cara- cara yang sesuai untuk mewujudkan stabilitas sosial.
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan pengelolaan lingkungan fisik di sekitar masyarakat untuk memenuhi kebutuhannya tanpa mengganggu cadangan alamiahnya. KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan kebebasan dari instabilitas sosial akibat degradasi lingkungan. KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN merupakan upaya proaktif untuk meminimumkan ancaman-ancaman anthropogenik terhadap integritas fungsional biosfir dan kemanusiaan. (Barnett, J, 1997, 'Environmental Security: Now What?', seminar, Department of International Relations, Keele University, December 4 1997.) Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Environmental security is a term used by scholars and practitioners to posit linkages between environmental conditions and security interests. Although competing notions of environmental security abound, they generally fall into three sets of claims: 1.States and non-state actors should guard against environmental degradation for the same reason they guard against organized violence; both kinds of threats can harm human, material, and natural resources on a large and disruptive scale. 2.Local and regional environmental degradation and/or resource scarcities (exacerbated by population growth, inequitable wealth distribution, and global environmental changes) are an important contributing factor to sub-national political instability and violent conflict. 3.Military and security institutions (including intelligence agencies) can and should play a greater role in environmental protection. The rise in popularity of environmental security slogans has accompanied the increasingly prominent calls for new definitions of security to replace Cold War concepts predominantly rooted in Realism. Environmental Security is a state of the target group, either individual, collective or national, being systematically protected from environmental risks caused by inappropriate ecological process due to ignorance, accident, mismanagement or design. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 DEFINISI KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Pemaknaan KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kategori: 1.Concerns about the adverse impact of human activities on the environment - the emphasis here is on the security of the environment as a good in itself, for the sake of future generations, as the context for human life. 2.Concerns about the direct and indirect effects of various forms of environmental change (especially scarcity and degradation) which may be natural or human-generated on national and regional security. Here the focus is on environmental change triggering, intensifying or generating the forms of conflict and instability relevant to conventional security thinking. Research suggests that interstate war is less likely than diffuse civil violence. A subsidiary question is: what can conventional security resources do to address these threats? Suggestions include: using intelligence data gathering and analysis assets, promoting technology transfer and dialogue through military to military contact programs, using the army corps of engineers to help tackle specific environmental problems, etc. A related question is, can military training, testing and war fighting activities be made less harmful to the environment. 3.Concerns about the insecurity individuals and groups (from small communities to humankind) experience due to environmental change such as water scarcity, air pollution, global warming, andso on. Here the focus is on the material well-being of individuals and there is no presumption that this is a traditional security issue or that traditional security assets will be useful. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Environmental security is the relative public security from environmental dangers caused by natural or human processes due to ignorance, accident, mismanagement, weak management (actor pursuing private benefit so as to translate public environment capital into private economic and social capital), or by design and originating within or across national borders. Environmental security is the relative public safety from environmental dangers caused by natural causes, economic activity or military actions; it includes the amelioration of resource scarcities, environmental degradation and biological threats that could lead to conflict. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Environmental security is the concept that social (and thus political and economic) stability controls, as is controlled by, the abundance and distribution of natural resources. DEFINISI KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
efinitions of Environmental Security Environmental security addresses the consequences of environmental degradation, broadly defined to include depletion or degradation of natural resources such as air, water, land; unwise development or land use practices that may contribute to societal, political or economic instability or conflict. Environmental Security is comprised of restoration, compliance, conservation, pollution prevention, environmental security technology, and international activities, which are explained, as follows: 1.Restoration is identification, evaluation, containment, treatment, and/or removal of contamination so that it no longer poses a threat to public health and the environment. 2.Compliance is meeting applicable statutory, Executive Order, and regulatory standards for all environmental security functions, including FGS or the Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document, as appropriate. 3.Conservation is planned management, use, and protection; continued benefit for present and future generations; and prevention of exploitation, destruction, and/or neglect of natural and cultural resources. 4.Pollution prevention is source reduction as defined in 42 U.S.C 13101- 13109 (reference (nn)), and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through increased efficiency in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources; or protection of natural resources by conservation. 5.Safety is a multifaceted program designed to prevent accidental loss of human and material resources; and protects the environment from the potentially damaging effect of DoD mishaps. 6.Occupational health protects personnel from health risks, and includes occupational medicine e, illness and injury tend analysis, epidemiology, occupational health nursing, industrial hygiene, and radiological health. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 DEFINISI KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
Environmental security addresses the consequences of environmental degradation, broadly defined to include depletion or degradation of natural resources such as air, water, land; unwise development or land use practices that may contribute to societal, political or economic instability or conflict. Environmental Security is comprised of restoration, compliance, conservation, pollution prevention, environmental security technology, and international activities, which are explained, as follows: 1.Fire and emergency services enhance combat capability by preserving life and DoD property through fire suppression, fire prevention, fire protection engineering, and emergency resources. 2.Explosives safety protects personnel, property, and military equipment from unnecessary exposure to the hazards associated with DoD ammunition and explosives; and protects the environment from potentially damaging effects of DoD ammunition and explosives. 3.Pest management is the prevention and control of disease vectors and pests that may adversely affect the DoD mission or military operations; the health and well-being of people; structures, material, or property. 4.Environmental security technology consists of research, development, tests and evaluation, and regulatory certification of innovative technologies responsive to user needs. 5.International environmental activities include bilateral or multilateral agreements, information exchanges, cooperative agreements, and specific actions, consistent with the responsibilities identified in subsection E.3, above, to bring DoD resources to bear on international military-related environmental matters or as otherwise appropriate in support of national defense policy interests. Sumber: http://www.acunu.org/millennium/es-2def.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 DEFINISI KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN Environmental security, a relatively new and still somewhat contentious concept, may be defined as the intersection of environmental and national security considerations at a national policy level. It may be understood as a result of several important trends. One, of course, is the breakdown of the bipolar geopolitical structure that characterized the cold war. A second, less visible to many in the policy community, is the shift of environment from compliance and remediation to strategic for society. This process is occurring at many different scales, from implementation of Design for Environment methodologies within firms, to integration of environmental and trade considerations in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Sumber: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1601426?uid=3738224&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid =21100693627371… diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Taken together, these trends suggest that environmental security may be an important evolution of national state and international policy systems. If this is to occur, however, the concept must be defined with sufficient rigor to support an operational program.
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN Environmental security examines the threat posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations. It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems cross state borders. The Millennium Project did a global assessment of the definitions of environmental security and created a synthesis definition: Environmental Security is environmental viability for life support, with three sub-elements: preventing or repairing military damage to the environment, preventing or responding to environmentally caused conflicts, and protecting the environment due to its inherent moral value. Environmental security is an important concept in two fields: international relations and international development. Within international development, projects may aim to improve aspects of environmental security such as food security or water security. Sumber: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_security … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Targets for MDG 7 about environmental sustainability show international priorities for environmental security. Target 7B is about the security of fisheries on which many people depend for food. Fisheries are an example of a resource that cannot be contained within state borders. A conflict before the International Court of Justice between Chile and Peru about maritime borders and their associated fisheries is a case study for environmental security.
KETAHANAN PANGAN (SUMBER: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_security) Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. According to the World Resources Institute, global per capita food production has been increasing substantially for the past several decades.hunger In 2006, MSNBC reported that globally, the number of people who are overweight has surpassed the number who are undernourished – the world had more than one billion people who were overweight, and an estimated 800 million who were undernourished. According to a 2004 article from the BBC, China, the world's most populous country, is suffering from an obesity epidemic. In India, the second-most populous country in the world, 30 million people have been added to the ranks of the hungry since the mid-1990s and 46% of children are underweight. Worldwide around 925 million people are chronically hungry due to extreme poverty, while up to 2 billion people lack food security intermittently due to varying degrees of poverty (source: FAO, 2010). Six million children die of hunger every year – 17,000 every day. As of late 2007, export restrictions and panic buying, US Dollar Depreciation, increased farming for use in biofuels, world oil prices at more than $100 a barrel, global population growth, climate change, loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development, and growing consumer demand in China and India are claimed to have pushed up the price of grain. However, the role of some of these factors is under debate. Some argue the role of biofuel has been overplayed as grain prices have come down to the levels of 2006. Nonetheless, food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world. The ongoing global credit crisis has affected farm credits, despite a boom in commodity prices. Food security is a complex topic, standing at the intersection of many disciplines. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
KETAHANAN PANGAN (SUMBER: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_security) A direct relationship exists between food consumption levels and poverty. Families with the financial resources to escape extreme poverty rarely suffer from chronic hunger, while poor families not only suffer the most from chronic hunger, but are also the segment of the population most at risk during food shortages and famines. Two commonly used definitions of food security come from the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security includes at a minimum (1) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, and (2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies). (USDA) The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine. "Famine and hunger are both rooted in food insecurity. Food insecurity can be categorized as either chronic or transitory. Chronic food insecurity translates into a high degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger; ensuring food security presupposes elimination of that vulnerability. [Chronic] hunger is not famine. It is similar to undernourishment and is related to poverty, existing mainly in poor countries.“ Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
KETAHANAN AIR (SUMBER: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_security) Water security is the capacity of a population to ensure that they continue to have access to potable water. It is an increasing concern arising from population growth, drought, climate change, oscillation between El Nino and La Nina effects, urbanisation, salinity, upstream pollution, over-allocation of water licences by government agencies and over-utilisation of groundwater from artesian basins. Water security is rapidly declining in many parts of the world. According to the Pacific Institute, "While regional impacts will vary, global climate change will potentially alter agricultural productivity, freshwater availability and quality, access to vital minerals, coastal and island flooding, and more. Among the consequences of these impacts will be challenges to political relationships, realignment of energy markets and regional economies, and threats to security". It impacts regions, states and countries. Tensions exist between upstream and downstream users of water within individual jurisdictions. During history there has been much conflict over use of water from rivers such as the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Another highly politicized example is Israel's control of water resources in the Levant region since its creation, where Israel securing its water resources was one of several drivers for the 1967 Six Day War. Water security is sometimes sought by implementing water desalination, pipelines between sources and users, water licences with different security levels and war. Water allocation between competing users is increasingly determined by application of market-based pricing for either water licenses or actual water. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
APAKAH KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN ITU? The Institute for Environmental Security (IES) is an international non-profit non- governmental organisation established in 2002 in The Hague, in order to increase political attention to environmental security as a means to help safeguard essential conditions for peace and sustainable development. Hubungan natara lingkungan dnegan ketahanan kemusiaan dan sumberdaya alam telah menjadi bahan kajian yang penting dan sekarang menjadi fokus penting dari kebijakan lingkungan secara internaisonal. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael Renner ) Introduction Since the late 1970s and 1980s, there has been an ongoing discourse with regard to the connections between environment, resources, security, conflict, and peacemaking. These connections gradually became more accepted among academics and NGOs, but were met with greater reservation by policymakers. By the mid-1990s, Robert Kaplan still felt compelled to lament: “Mention ‘the environment’ or ‘diminishing natural resources’ in foreign-policy circles and you meet a brick wall of scepticism or boredom.” During the latter years of the 1990s, environmental issues did begin to find a place in the arena of practical foreign and security policy-making. Then, new difficulties arose in the wake of the attacks of 11 September 2001. In the United States, where policy- makers had begun to embrace notions of environmental security in the 1990s, the “war on terror” has taken centre stage, and largely brought these early efforts to a halt. The study of how environmental issues and peace and security concerns interact is far from a monolithic undertaking. Different writers have focused on different aspects within the spectrum of connections. Some have focused fairly narrowly (i.e., limiting their inquiry to the connections between environment and the incidence of violent conflict); others have drawn far broader boundaries (i.e., adopting a broader environment and security approach). Some of the writing has focused on the impact of environmental change on the national security of a particular state, whereas other efforts have been primarily concerned with the consequences for global security. Different schools of thought exist side by side, and the disagreements among proponents of different views and interpretations have at times been very pronounced and in a few cases even quite vehement.3 And at least some analysts question the conceptual merits of notions like “environmental security” and “environmental conflict.” Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael Renner ) Introduction This introduction is not intended to engage the different schools of thought. Rather, its purpose is to provide a brief overview of the various dimensions in which environment intersects with conflict and security. In broad terms, these connections can be grouped in four categories: 1. The impact of environmental change on conflict formation. Conflicts may emerge from situations of resource and environmental scarcity (overuse and depletion of resources), mediated and sometimes exacerbated by the social and economic repercussions of environmental degradation. 2. On the other hand, tensions and violence can also arise out of a context of contested resource wealth. This is only partially about access to and control over lucrative resources. Resource extraction often leads to severe environmental and other impacts on local communities. If the benefits and burdens of extractive projects such as oil production, mining, logging, and large-scale dam construction are distributed unequally, the result may be protracted conflict. 3. The environmental impact of armed conflicts, arms production, maintaining military forces, and preparations for warfare. Closely related are environmental considerations in the cleanup of military bases and in the dismantlement of obsolete or surplus weapons. 4. Opportunities for “environmental peacemaking” that may arise out of common interests among different countries or communities in safeguarding resources and ecosystems, as well as shared vulnerabilities where ecosystems are heavily degraded. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael Renner ) Defining Conflict, Redefining Security Before discussing these connections in some detail, it is useful to consider the broader context— the effort to broaden and redefine the definition of security. The terms “conflict” and “security” are often used in very different ways by different analysts. a. Conflict Conflict is the more easily defined of the two terms, though not without its own set of challenges. A basic distinction needs to be made between armed conflict and disputes that are largely carried out by non-violent means. This is not an absolute distinction: non-violent struggles may at some point turn violent, and vice versa. And conflicts often do not have a well-defined start and end point, as formal declarations of war and even formal peace agreements are becoming rare. The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research in Germany has identified 249 political conflicts around the world that were active in 2005. Of these, 24 involved a high level of armed violence and 74 some occasional violence. The remainder— 86 “manifest conflicts” and 65 “latent conflicts”— were carried out without resort to weapons. Within the narrower category of armed conflict, peace researchers have developed a range of definitions and methodologies.6 Put in simple terms, war and armed conflict require the following elements: there has to be use of armed force (and there has to be some continuity of violence rather than sporadic fighting); the fighting has to be between organized groups and at least one of the conflict parties has to be a government; and there have to be battle deaths (with different thresholds established for minor, intermediate, and major conflicts (or equivalent terminologies) in terms of deaths per year or for the duration of the conflict). While such criteria are necessary for a systematic, scientific assessment of conflict trends and developments, they are increasingly in danger of being too narrowly drawn, with the consequence that certain types of armed violence fail to be captured in data sets. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael Renner ) Defining Conflict, Redefining Security The methodological focus on battlefield deaths, for instance, means that some conflicts are recorded at a lower level of intensity than appears warranted. In most contemporary armed conflicts, the number of people killed on the battlefield is usually quite small compared with those who perish because fighting and looting shred public infrastructures, displace civilians, disrupt harvests and halt other economic activity, and prevent delivery of vital health and other services. In many cases, there is a severe lack of reliable data. But a recent study found that for every battle-related death in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there are 62 non-violent deaths related to the conflict in the country, with malnutrition and a variety of diseases the leading causes. An estimated 3.9 million people have died there since 1998, and about 38,000 civilians continue to die every month. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012. The increase in the flows of energy and materials together with climate and ecological changes are exacerbating conflicts over access to environmental resources and are also creating new waste disposal conflicts. Understanding the causes of conflicts requires a multi-disciplinary approach. “Environmental conflicts”, “environmental security”, or “eco- violence” are often used interchangeably in the literature. In this article environmental conflict research designates scholarly contributions that portray or discuss the natural environment as a cause of violent conflict. There is no widely accepted definition of what constitutes an environmental conflict or environmental security.
b. Security Security is a rather vague term without a generally-agreed definition. Traditionally, it is seen as closely related to the threat or use of violence, and military means are regarded as central to the provision of security. This may once have made sense, when conflicts took place predominantly between different countries, when territorial control was a key objective, and when uniformed soldiers were the combatants. But over the last several decades, this type of conflict has become more the exception than the norm. A number of efforts were launched to challenge this narrow approach in the 1970s and 1980s, but gained momentum after the end of the cold war. Several high-profile international commissions, NGOs, and academics developed a range of innovative concepts refining and redefining security— by including social, economic, and environmental dimensions. These became known under headings such as common security, comprehensive security, and environmental security. Human security, the most encompassing of these concepts, was first spelled out in detail in the 1994 edition of the Human Development Report. The gathering discourse raised a number of critical questions: · Who is to be protected? · What are the “threats”? · Who is to provide security? · And by what means? The unfolding discourse challenged orthodox assumptions about national security, deepening it “upwards” (from national to global security) and “downwards” (from territorial security focused on states and governments to people security— individuals and communities), and widening it by arguing that non-military dimensions, such as social wellbeing and environmental integrity, are important prerequisites for ensuring security. There is now growing recognition of the important inter-connections between environment, development, and security. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Introduction to the Concepts of Environmental Security and Environmental Conflict (Michael Renner )
The core insights emerging from this discussion can be summarized as follows: 1.Weapons do not necessarily provide security— and may even heighten insecurity. This is true for adversarial states armed with weapons of such destructive power that no defense is possible. It is true in civil wars, where the easy availability of weapons empowers the ruthless but offers little defence for civilians. 2.Real security in a globalizing world cannot be provided on a purely national basis, or even on basis of limited alliances. A multilateral and even global approach is needed to deal effectively with a multitude of transboundary challenges. 3.The traditional focus on state (or regime) security is inadequate and needs to encompass safety and well-being for the state’s population. If individuals and communities are insecure, state security itself can be extremely fragile. Democratic governance and a vibrant civil society may ultimately be more imperative for security than an army. 4.Non-military dimensions have an important influence on security and stability. Nations around the world, but particularly the weakest ones, confront a multitude of pressures. They face a debilitating combination of rising competition for resources, severe environmental breakdown, the resurgence of infectious diseases, poverty and growing wealth disparities, demographic pressures, and joblessness and livelihood insecurity. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 The human security concept has been criticized by a number of analysts as being too sweeping and analytically unfocused. Critics have charged that the inclusion of a wide array of social, economic, and environmental ailments makes it difficult to set priorities and translate the concept into specific policies
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Andree Kirchner The relationship between environment and security has been under consideration since the 1980s mainly by two groups: (1) the environmental policy community, addressing the security implications of environmental change and security, and (2) the security community, looking at new definitions of national security, particularly in the post-Cold War era. It was soon acknowledged that global impacts of for example environmental change, the depletion of the ozone layer and transboundary pollution, have clear security implications. This in turn made the military authorities to re-evaluate the security dimension of environmental issues. Security was traditionally seen as a synonym for national security with two main objectives: (1) to preserve the territorial integrity of the State and (b) to maintain the preferred form of government, by political and military means. When political scientists took up the environmental aspect of security, they defined environment impacts as being part of the security issue. This approach attempted to re-define the concept of national security completely. In the early 1980s the Independent Commission on Security and Disarmament Issues (ICSDI) developed and introduced the concept of common security, giving the idea of national security a broader perspective. Sumber: Fourth UNEP Global Training Programme on Environmental Law and Policy … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Additional to the traditional security aspects, other non-traditional threats to security, e.g. economic decline, social and political instability, ethnic rivalries and territorial dispute, international terrorism, money laundering and drug trafficking as well as environmental stress, have been incorporated.
The World Commission on Environment and Development2 clearly linked security with environment in its 1987 Brundtland Report: “Humankind faces two great threats. The first is that of a nuclear exchange. Let us hope that it remains a diminishing prospect for the future. The second is that of environmental ruin world-wide and far from being a prospect for the future, it is a fact right now.“ Following this inter-linkage the General Assembly officially introduced the concept of security and environment at its 42nd Session. In recent years environmental security has been understood extensively, including human, physical, social and economic well being, giving the scope hardly any limitation for interpretations. At present, however, there is no consensus on a clear definition of environmental security. The scope of the issue is limited on how environmental impacts may affect conflicts, rather than security as such. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Andree Kirchner In this respect, environmental security has basically two dimensions: Environmental stress may be a cause as well as a result of a conflict.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AS CAUSE OF A CONFLICT Environmental stress, i.e. global impacts of for example environmental change, the depletion of the ozone layer and transboundary pollution, may lead to a conflict. History has shown a large variety of examples of conflicts caused by global impacts with environmental roots.6 The following brief description of four cases from South America/Caribbean, Africa and Asia are examples of a clear relationship between environment and security: The main sectors of employment on the Philippines are agriculture, forestry and fishery. The natural resources have been widely depleted through deforestation, soil erosion, watershed abuse, overfishing and coral reef destruction. An ever-growing population shares the decreased natural resources. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Anti-government rebels, e.g. the New People’s Army, take advantage of these declining conditions. They control a large part of the territory. Governmental campaigns against the rebels often do not reflect the minds of the rural communities disenchanted with the degradation of the environmental basis of their livelihood. The result is a lack of security and may even result in open conflict.
DEFORESTATION IN ETHIOPIA AND SOMALIA In the 1960s, as a result of deforestation and favoured by improper agricultural practices and population increase, there was a widespread soil erosion in Ethiopia’s Highlands. The result was decline of farmland, inefficiency of agriculture, food shortages and exploding prices leading to urban riots. The neighbouring Somalia had to face similar problems. Most of Somalia’s rivers rise in Ethiopia, and Somalis worried that Ethiopian migrants might divert water for irrigation. In 1977 the two countries went to war until 1979. Supported by the late superpowers with supply of arms, the region could not yet recover properly. Deforestation in the Caribbean The problem of deforestation as described above is quite similar in Haiti. Already in 1978 the President’s Council on Environmental Quality warned that in Haiti deforestation was almost complete and that resulting firewood shortages and cultivation of marginal soil would promote social disruption and instability. The depletion of forests, soils and water supplies in El Salvador and a population density of six times that of neighbouring Honduras, are possible factors of future instability. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Conflicts are common in forest management. They exist in practically all countries. However, forest related conflicts can be observed at different levels and with varying dimensions and intensities. The reasons behind forest conflicts is inherent in forest management being multi- objective and therefore with many stakeholders (local forest users, different government agencies in-and outside the forest administration, civil society, and the private sector) often having competing interests. In addition, forest management is usually fragmented and often subject to unclear, overlapping, competing or contradictory legal frameworks. Economic liberalization, decentralization and privatization affects forest users in diverse and unexpected ways. Whereas they offer new possibilities for benefit sharing, not all people necessarily gain from them, hence, these conditions sometimes generate new tensions, or serve to revive long-standing or latent conflicts. Conflicts of lower intensity do not lead directly to violent death, but may play a role in fuelling structural violence such as impeded development, disease, famine, forced migration etc. The detrimental impact of such 'low intensity' conflicts that involve only minimal or sporadic violence should therefore, not be underestimated. Forest resources are so close to livelihoods, identities and security in many parts of the world, that conflicts over their control, management and use, merit our support. Rising tensions and disputes can undermine institutions- and rules that govern resource use. Escalated conflicts increase the vulnerability of poor forest users and often result in human suffering, economic decline and environmental degradation.
Water in the Middle East In the 1950s there was a comprehensive plan for the co-operative use of the Jordan River waters (the Johnston Plan), which failed because of mistrust among the four bordering states (Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria). Since then each state has tended to follow its own water policies. The militarisation of water conflicts is not of recent nature. On numerous occasions, Israel and its neighbouring Arab states have feuded over access to Jordan River waters. Former Israeli Minister for Agriculture Rafael Eitan stated in November 1990 that Israel must never relinquish the West Bank because a loss of its water supplies would “threaten the Jewish State.“ Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 DEFORESTATION IN ETHIOPIA AND SOMALIA Water conflict is a term describing a conflict between countries, states, or groups over an access to water resources. The United Nations recognizes that water disputes result from opposing interests of water users, public or private.United Nations A wide range of water conflicts appear throughout history, though rarely are traditional wars waged over water alone. Instead, water has historically been a source of tension and a factor in conflicts that start for other reasons. However, water conflicts arise for several reasons, including territorial disputes, a fight for resources, and strategic advantage. These conflicts occur over both freshwater and saltwater, and between international boundaries. However, conflicts occur mostly over freshwater; because freshwater resources are necessary, yet limited, they are the center of water disputes arising out of need for potable water. As freshwater is a vital, yet unevenly distributed natural resource, its availability often impacts the living and economic conditions of a country or region. The lack of cost-effective water desalination techniques in areas like the Middle East, among other elements of water crises can put severe pressures on all water users, whether corporate, government, or individual, leading to tension, and possibly aggression.living Recent humanitarian catastrophes, such as the Rwandan Genocide or the war in Sudanese Darfur, have been linked back to water conflicts
WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY? The relation between the environment and the security of humans and nature has been the object of much research and the subject of many publications in recent decades, but it is only recently becoming an important focus of international environmental policy. A recent comprehensive overview of the environmental security field observes that: 1.The environment is the most transnational of transnational issues, and its security is an important dimension of peace, national security, and human rights that is just now being understood; 2.Over the next 100 years, one third of current global land cover will be transformed, with the world facing increasingly hard choices among consumption, ecosystem services, restoration, and conservation and management; 3.Environmental security is central to national security, comprising the dynamics and interconnections among the natural resource base, the social fabric of the state, and the economic engine for local and regional stability; and that, 4.While the precise roles of the environment in peace, conflict, destabilisation and human insecurity may differ from situation to situation and as such are still being debated in relation to other security and conflict variables, there are growing indications that it is increasingly an underlying cause of instability, conflict and unrest. Sumber: http://www.envirosecurity.org/activities/What_is_Environmental_Security.pdf … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future. It includes: 1.probable continued solvency 2.predictability of the future cash flow of a person or other economic entity, such as a country 3.employment security or job security Financial security more often refers to individual and family money management and savings. Economic security tends to include the broader effect of a society's production levels and monetary support for non-working citizens.
MENGAPA KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN PENTING? To the extent humankind neglects to maintain the globe's life-supporting eco-systems generating water, food, medicine, and clean air, current and future generations will be confronted with increasingly severe instances of environmentally induced changes. Such events will test our traditional concepts, boundaries, and understandings of national security and alliance politics and, if taken for granted, may lead to conflict, including violent conflict, from the global to the regional, national, local or human level. Environmental security, broadly defined, affects humankind and its institutions and organizations anywhere and at anytime. Sumber: http://www.envirosecurity.org/activities/What_is_Environmental_Security.pdf … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN DAN KEMANUSIAAN Environmental degradation and the exploitation of natural resources are recognized as important drivers of violence between and within states, contributing to poverty and state failure. This paper charts our evolving understanding of the complex relationship between environmental change and security, a debate that has developed considerably since the UN Conference on the Human Environment, held in Sweden in 1972. It attempts to outline the major theoretical approaches and to arrive at some conclusions as to what we do know about the links between the environment and our security. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions for practical policies that can ensure environmental management is supportive of both peace and sustainable development.
KALAU KETERSEDIAAN SUMBERDAYA TERBATAS Environmental scarcity is determined by environmental change, population size and growth, and unequal distribution (or access to) resources. Of these factors, unequal access to resources is not bound by physical limits alone. It is also a reflection of societies' preferences, beliefs and norms. Leading examples of emerging environmental change are: depletion and pollution of fresh water supplies, depletion of fisheries, degradation and disappearance of biodiversity, degradation and loss of agriculture lands, food and health safety, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. Of these major environmental changes facing humankind, the first five are now, or will likely be, growing threats to environmental security in the near term; the latter two will increasingly affect human security in the coming 50 years. The interaction among and between the determinants of environmental scarcity sets the stage for addressing the environmental security challenges humankind will be confronted with. Our ability (or lack thereof) to make innovative institutional arrangements and/or technological advances for managing the environmental security challenges we face, will increase or decrease global environmental security. Sumber: http://www.envirosecurity.org/activities/What_is_Environmental_Security.pdf … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 KELANGKAAN LINGKUNGAN There are three types of environmental scarcity: 1.Demand-induced scarcity is caused by population growth or increased per capita resource consumption; 2.Supply-induced scarcity is caused by degradation and depletion of environmental resources; and 3.Structural scarcity, the type most often stressed by political analysts, is caused by an unbalanced distribution of resources that severely affects less powerful groups in the society (sumber: http://faculty.washington.edu/pnhoward/publishing/articles/mexico.pdf)
KALAU SUMBERDAYA BERLIMPAH The basic framework for understanding the relationship between environment and security is the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment which looks at all the functions of ecosystems and the services they deliver to people and nature. Conceptually one may make a difference between environmental services and natural resources such as minerals, oil and gas. They also may lead to conflicts - and very often do! But then it is not scarcity, but abundance, and the motives are not need, but greed. In practice, mining the minerals and exploiting the oil, coal and gas, can lead to serious environmental degradation through pollution, infrastructure, corruption and violent conflicts - in short to a decrease of environmental security. Sumber: http://www.envirosecurity.org/activities/What_is_Environmental_Security.pdf … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 APAKAH KELIMPAHAN SPESIES ? Species abundance is the study of how common a particular species is in a given community. This kind of research is popular in the field of macroecology. Environmental researchers use studies on the abundance of a species to help build a picture of overall biodiversity in an area. Scientists refer to the idea of species populations as “relative species abundance” because they are studying species population in a community or habitat relative to other species and other habitats. Species abundance is applied to mammal species as well as birds, insects, and other creatures. It can even be applied to plants. Looking at species abundance and other aspects of biodiversity help scientists to figure out what is going on within a particular ecological environment. In practical terms, studies on species abundance might lead to a particular type of animal being labeled as an endangered species. If the population estimates are low enough, the species might be labeled a critically endangered species. This will generate some specific laws in many nations protecting the remaining population from hunting, poaching or even habitat encroachment. (sumber: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-species-abundance.htm)
KONFLIK & KOOPERASI LINGKUNGAN Another important aspect in the relationship between environment and security is the impact of conflict on the environment. Violent conflict, war, displaced persons, etc. may lead to a decrease of environmental security and spiral up a vicious circle of scarcity and further conflict. On the other hand, as stated recently by Adelphi Research, “the sustainable use of natural resources and joint efforts to protect the environment across national borders and social divisions can contribute to conflict prevention and peace building. For example, the predictions of future wars over access to water have thus far failed to come true. On the contrary, various forms of cross-border water cooperation are contributing to stability and peace in regions of latent conflict.” Sumber: http://www.envirosecurity.org/activities/What_is_Environmental_Security.pdf … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 TATA-KELOLA LINGKUNGAN UNEP has a rich history assisting governments in obtaining environmental information for decision- making, enhancing global and regional environmental cooperation, developing and applying national and international environmental law, advancing national and regional implementation of environmental objectives, and bridging major groups and governments in policy development and implementation processes. (sumber: http://hqweb.unep.org/environmentalgovernance/)
SISTEM SOSIO-BUDAYA: Suatu Model untuk Perubahan Sumber: http://resweb.llu.edu/rford/courses/spol554/syllabus.html … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
KONSEP KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN The global environment is connected to the security, economic prosperity and social well-being of both states and individuals. Until recently, the concept of security has only been associated with national security which emphasised armed conflict as the means to attain security through state power. The concept of environmental security broadens this definition by focussing on the transnational nature of the global environment which disregards human-constructed borders. Because of this the environment should replace the traditional realist idea of security as the key issue in global contemporary politics. Sumber: http://janetthomas.wordpress.com/2012/01/10/the-global-environment- must-replace-military-security-as-the-key-issue-in-global-politics/ … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 The challenges to the global environment in the century ahead include global warming, ozone depletion, and the loss of tropical rainforests and marine habitats. These challenges are as much a threat to humanity as the threat of nuclear warfare. However, because the threat of nuclear warfare focuses on mutually assured destruction more focus is given to this threat because of its perceived and tangible reality. On the other hand the threats to the global environment are more difficult to perceive because one cannot see ozone depletion or see the immediate effects of global warming. Rainforest destruction happens far away from the major cities in which much of the global population, and so does the loss of marine habitats.
KETAHANAN MANUSIA (KEMANUSIAAN) The horizontal axis represents different types of security while the vertical axis represents levels of analysis. What all definitions of human security agree on, is the level of analysis. The level of analysis is fundamental to human security and separates it from more other perspectives of security. Traditionally security has been viewed from the state level. Many confuse national security and human security, and for good reason. There is much overlap between the concepts and often national security policies are indistinguishable from human security policies. Often, but not always. Sumber: http://peace-building.blogspot.com/ … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
LINGKUNGAN & KETAHANAN KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN mengandung makna perlindungan jasa-jasa ekosistem dan jaminan suplai sumberdaya alam, termasuk air, tanah, energi, dan mineral/tambang, untuk mewujudkan kesejahteraan ekonomi dan sosial secara berlanjut." Sumber: http://www.environmentandsecurity.org/articles/view/167611/ … diunduh 30 Maret 2012
THE EXPANDING DEFINITION OF NATIONAL SECURITY This broader view of national security reflects the fact that new global pressures now threaten the well being and resilience of both human society and the natural environment. These pressures include population growth, increased demand for energy and materials, and competition for access to land, water, minerals, and other vital natural resources.resiliencepopulation growth The resulting impacts include changes in global climate and degradation of clean air and water, soil, forests, and wetlands, all of which have the potential to compromise energy security, food security, supply chain security, and other domestic and international concerns. Today the vitality of our ecosystems is already seriously threatened.global climate Future global ecosystems will be under even greater pressure when by 2050 global population will reach about 9 billion, some 30 percent higher than the 2000 population. Poverty alleviation and rising affluence in developing nations will inevitably increase the demand for natural resources. The boom in Asian economies is well under way, while in Africa another billion people are ready and eager for economic expansion. Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 The essence of global security is acquisition of economic well-being and social justice for all. Hence, the challenge ahead is to create global conditions that foster economic growth and human well being in a sustainable manner. How can society address these growing social and environmental pressures in ways that sustain economic growth, assure an adequate supply of natural resources, protect human health and safety, and avoid domestic and international conflicts?
TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY CHALLENGES In 2001, at the start of the Administration of George W. Bush, environment and security were further linked to social well being. The 2002 National Security Strategy stated, “A world where some live in comfort and plenty, while half of the human race lives on less than $2 a day, is neither just nor stable. Including all of the world’s poor in an expanding circle of development – and opportunity – is a moral imperative and one of the top priorities of U.S. international policy.” Events in the decade from 2000 to 2010 were dominated by the 9/11 attack and subsequent war on terrorism. The events of 9/11 have sharpened the national debate on the meaning of security and on the root causes and means of preventing terrorism. Before 9/11, while there was prosperity in the West, there were warnings of dissatisfaction and instability in the rest of the world. In Africa, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, development had failed to improve the quality of life for 300 million people. Health, education, and social services in much of Africa were deteriorating.Africa One of his recommendations (Carlucci et al 2000) goes to the heart of the issues of environment and security: Sumber: … diunduh 30 Maret 2012 "A host of new global challenges may soon require imaginative and sustained responses. These nontraditional challenges include uncontrolled migration across borders, international crime, pandemics like AIDs and malaria, and environmental degradation…. However, in this era, Developed nations have the resources and opportunity to ask themselves whether they want to live in a world where such problems continue to fester, or whether they will try to make a difference. This is primarily a matter of leadership and forming alliances between like-minded, relatively wealthy countries to begin a new ethos for the future that is not based solely on a short-term national model but that embraces a long-term global vision.“
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