Presentation on theme: "Intro to drama What is drama? (Not the kind you have with your friends, but the literature type.) What dramas have you read in the past? What did you."— Presentation transcript:
1Intro to dramaWhat is drama? (Not the kind you have with your friends, but the literature type.)What dramas have you read in the past? What did you like and dislike about reading drama?
2Objectives I will know what a drama is and be able to define it. I will know the conventions of drama.
3Rise of American dramaDrama was one of the last of the literary generes to develop in the U.S.Puritans regarded theatrical performances as frivolous.Eugene O’Neill’s Beyond the Horizon marked a turning point in presenting true-to-life characters who were struggling to understand their lives.Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is an example of a modern drama that portrays events from Puritan times.
4Types of Drama Tragedy Comedy Recounts the downfall of a main characterComedyLight and humorous in tone, usually ending happily
5Dramatic Conventions Plot Conflict – struggle between opposing forces and the basis of a story’s plotExposition – provides background information and introduces characters, setting, & conflictRising action – conflict buildsClimax – point of highest interest & emotional intensityFalling action – occurs after the climax as the events in the story start to wind downResolution – reveals the final outcome of events and ties up any loose ends
6Dramatic Conventions Structure Characters Act – a major unit of action in a play (similar to a chapter)Scene – a subdivision of an act usually establishes a different time or placeCharactersProtagonist – the central characterAntagonist – opposes the protagonistFoil – a minor character who provides a striking contrast to another characterCast of Characters – the names of all a play’s characters often listed in order of appearance.
7Dramatic Conventions Speech Devices In drama, the story line is developed through the characters’ actions and dialogue.Dialogue – conversation between charactersMonologue – a long speech spoken by a single character to the audience or another characterSoliloquy – a reflective speech in which a character speaks his or her private thoughts aloud, unheard by other charactersAside – a short speech or comment that is delivered by a character to the audience, but that is not heard by other characters who are present
8Dramatic Conventions Stage and Setting Stage directions – the italicized instructions in a play. Included by a playwright to describe the setting, props, lighting, scenery, sound effects, and costumes. Stage directions also describe the entrances and exits of characters and how the characters look, speak, and react to events or to others.
9Example – Stage Directions (A cell in Salem jail, that fall.) (At the back is a high barred window; near it, a great, heavy door. Along the walls are two benches.) (The place is in darkness but for the moonlight seeping through the bars. It appears empty. Presently footsteps are heard coming down a corridor beyond the wall, keys rattle, and the door swings open Marshal Herrick enters with a lantern.) Why is the description of the cell important to the scene? What effect does it have on the mood the scene evokes?
12State Standard Objectives I will be able to use a graphic organizer to clarify meaning.I will be able to evaluate the author’s use of literary elements
13Objectives Explore the key idea of hysteria Identify and analyze conventions of dramaRead dramaDraw conclusions about charactersBuild vocabulary for reading and writingUse context clues to help determine word meaningUse appropriate word choice and sentence structure to create realistic dialogueUse writing to analyze literature
14Arthur Miller (1915 – 2005)“I don’t see how you can write anything decent without using as your basis the question of right or wrong.”Did you know that Arthur Miller…was once rejected by the University of Michigan due to low grades.Was once married to film star Marilyn Monroe?Wrote Death of a Salesman in six weeks?
15Arthur Miller (1915 – 2005)His plays explore family relationships, morality, and personal responsibility.Death of a Salesman won a Pulitzer Prize inWas called before a congressional committee to identify suspected Communists when he refused to implicate others he was cited for contempt.Wrote The Crucible to warn against mass hysteria and to plead for freedom and tolerance.
16NotesDrama – literature in play form – meant to be performed and seen.Stage directions – Miller uses to describe settings and characters as well as to provide historical backgroundDialogue – moves the plot forward and reveals character traitsTypes of characters – heroes, villains, and foils – used to heighten tensionPlot – driven by conflict that builds throughout each act
17Vocabulary Vocabulary Study worksheet I will read the passage. Listen for each bold faced word and clues to its meaning.Underline the clues you hear.Then complete part B.We will discussClasszone.com Vocabulary Flashcards
18Vocabulary Adamant resolute Ameliorate diminish Anarchy lawlessness Conciliatory soothingContentious inclined to disagreeCorroborate confirmDeference courtesyDeposition statement by a witness
20Reading Skill Read the Reading Skill section on page 131. As we read The Crucible, you will draw conclusions about the play’s main characters.Record the characters important traits and the evidence that reveals these traits in a chart.Be sure to add characters as you encounter them.Will be due at the end of each Act.
21Practice RS – Draw Conclusions Beth (shouting offstage where rushing water is heard) Don’t worry, Jenny! I’ll save you!What conclusions can you draw about Beth from this example?Questions to help: What does she say? Why does she say it? What type of character is she? What actions might go with her words? If you had just met this person what would your first impression be?
22BackgroundThe Crucible is based on the witch trials that took place in the Puritan community of Salem, Massachusetts, in At these trials, spectral evidence – the testimony of a church member who claimed to have seen a person’s spirit performing witchcraft – was enough to sentence the accused to death. Miller studied the court records of the trials to gain insight into his characters – all of whom were real people – and get a feel for the Puritan way of speaking. Above all, he wanted to capture the mood of a time when no one was safe.
23A Metaphorical TitleMiller chose the title of the play deliberately. Literally, a crucible is a container that can withstand high heat. A crucible most often is associated with the melting of metal, allowing for impurities in the metal to be identified and removed. Metaphorically, crucible refers to a severe test – a test that puts great stress upon people, revealing their weaknesses and strengths. The stress, like a fire, will burn away characters’ pretenses and bring their true natures to light. Which characters will be shattered by the experience? Which will be purified?
24Act 1 As we listen to Act 1 – follow along in your text Complete the chart on the characters we meet.
25Bell work Describe Abigail and give evidence for your description. HINT: You may want to use your text book.
26VocabularyOn the “Vocabulary Study” work sheet, for part A, read the passage, look for each boldfaced word and clues to its meaning. Underline words or phrases that are clues and draw an arrow to the boldfaced word they help you to define. Then complete part B.Make sure you place the correct heading on your paper and turn it in.
27Act 1 Continued Follow along in your text as we finish Act 1. Remember to complete your character analysis worksheet.