Presentation on theme: "Intro to drama What is drama? (Not the kind you have with your friends, but the literature type.) What dramas have you read in the past? What did you like."— Presentation transcript:
Intro to drama What is drama? (Not the kind you have with your friends, but the literature type.) What dramas have you read in the past? What did you like and dislike about reading drama?
Objectives I will know what a drama is and be able to define it. I will know the conventions of drama.
Rise of American drama Drama was one of the last of the literary generes to develop in the U.S. Puritans regarded theatrical performances as frivolous. Eugene O’Neill’s Beyond the Horizon marked a turning point in presenting true-to-life characters who were struggling to understand their lives. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible is an example of a modern drama that portrays events from Puritan times.
Types of Drama Tragedy ▫Recounts the downfall of a main character Comedy ▫Light and humorous in tone, usually ending happily
Dramatic Conventions Plot ▫Conflict – struggle between opposing forces and the basis of a story’s plot ▫Exposition – provides background information and introduces characters, setting, & conflict ▫Rising action – conflict builds ▫Climax – point of highest interest & emotional intensity ▫Falling action – occurs after the climax as the events in the story start to wind down ▫Resolution – reveals the final outcome of events and ties up any loose ends
Dramatic Conventions Structure ▫Act – a major unit of action in a play (similar to a chapter) ▫Scene – a subdivision of an act usually establishes a different time or place Characters ▫Protagonist – the central character ▫Antagonist – opposes the protagonist ▫Foil – a minor character who provides a striking contrast to another character ▫Cast of Characters – the names of all a play’s characters often listed in order of appearance.
Dramatic Conventions Speech Devices ▫In drama, the story line is developed through the characters’ actions and dialogue. ▫Dialogue – conversation between characters ▫Monologue – a long speech spoken by a single character to the audience or another character ▫Soliloquy – a reflective speech in which a character speaks his or her private thoughts aloud, unheard by other characters ▫Aside – a short speech or comment that is delivered by a character to the audience, but that is not heard by other characters who are present
Dramatic Conventions Stage and Setting ▫Stage directions – the italicized instructions in a play. Included by a playwright to describe the setting, props, lighting, scenery, sound effects, and costumes. Stage directions also describe the entrances and exits of characters and how the characters look, speak, and react to events or to others.
Example – Stage Directions (A cell in Salem jail, that fall.) (At the back is a high barred window; near it, a great, heavy door. Along the walls are two benches.) (The place is in darkness but for the moonlight seeping through the bars. It appears empty. Presently footsteps are heard coming down a corridor beyond the wall, keys rattle, and the door swings open Marshal Herrick enters with a lantern.) Why is the description of the cell important to the scene? What effect does it have on the mood the scene evokes?
State Standard Objectives I will be able to use a graphic organizer to clarify meaning. I will be able to evaluate the author’s use of literary elements
Objectives Explore the key idea of hysteria Identify and analyze conventions of drama Read drama Draw conclusions about characters Build vocabulary for reading and writing Use context clues to help determine word meaning Use appropriate word choice and sentence structure to create realistic dialogue Use writing to analyze literature
Arthur Miller (1915 – 2005) “I don’t see how you can write anything decent without using as your basis the question of right or wrong.” Did you know that Arthur Miller… ▫was once rejected by the University of Michigan due to low grades. ▫Was once married to film star Marilyn Monroe? ▫Wrote Death of a Salesman in six weeks?
Arthur Miller (1915 – 2005) His plays explore family relationships, morality, and personal responsibility. Death of a Salesman won a Pulitzer Prize in 1949. Was called before a congressional committee to identify suspected Communists when he refused to implicate others he was cited for contempt. Wrote The Crucible to warn against mass hysteria and to plead for freedom and tolerance.
Notes Drama – literature in play form – meant to be performed and seen. Stage directions – Miller uses to describe settings and characters as well as to provide historical background Dialogue – moves the plot forward and reveals character traits Types of characters – heroes, villains, and foils – used to heighten tension Plot – driven by conflict that builds throughout each act
Vocabulary Vocabulary Study worksheet I will read the passage. Listen for each bold faced word and clues to its meaning. Underline the clues you hear. Then complete part B. We will discuss Classzone.com Vocabulary Flashcards
Vocabulary Adamant resolute Amelioratediminish Anarchylawlessness Conciliatorysoothing Contentiousinclined to disagree Corroborate confirm Deferencecourtesy Depositionstatement by a witness
Reading Skill Read the Reading Skill section on page 131. As we read The Crucible, you will draw conclusions about the play’s main characters. Record the characters important traits and the evidence that reveals these traits in a chart. Be sure to add characters as you encounter them. Will be due at the end of each Act.
Practice RS – Draw Conclusions Beth (shouting offstage where rushing water is heard) Don’t worry, Jenny! I’ll save you! What conclusions can you draw about Beth from this example? Questions to help: What does she say? Why does she say it? What type of character is she? What actions might go with her words? If you had just met this person what would your first impression be?
Background The Crucible is based on the witch trials that took place in the Puritan community of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692. At these trials, spectral evidence – the testimony of a church member who claimed to have seen a person’s spirit performing witchcraft – was enough to sentence the accused to death. Miller studied the court records of the trials to gain insight into his characters – all of whom were real people – and get a feel for the Puritan way of speaking. Above all, he wanted to capture the mood of a time when no one was safe.
A Metaphorical Title Miller chose the title of the play deliberately. Literally, a crucible is a container that can withstand high heat. A crucible most often is associated with the melting of metal, allowing for impurities in the metal to be identified and removed. Metaphorically, crucible refers to a severe test – a test that puts great stress upon people, revealing their weaknesses and strengths. The stress, like a fire, will burn away characters’ pretenses and bring their true natures to light. Which characters will be shattered by the experience? Which will be purified?
Act 1 As we listen to Act 1 – follow along in your text Complete the chart on the characters we meet.
Bell work Describe Abigail and give evidence for your description. ▫HINT: You may want to use your text book.
Vocabulary On the “Vocabulary Study” work sheet, for part A, read the passage, look for each boldfaced word and clues to its meaning. Underline words or phrases that are clues and draw an arrow to the boldfaced word they help you to define. Then complete part B. Make sure you place the correct heading on your paper and turn it in.
Act 1 Continued Follow along in your text as we finish Act 1. Remember to complete your character analysis worksheet.