2Johnson impeachment trial takes place – avoids removal by one vote. OverviewApril 15, 1865Andrew Johnson takes over as President after assassination of President Lincoln.The 17th President, Andrew Johnson, becomes the the FIRST U.S. President to be impeached in 1868.Johnson was in office just under THREE years when the House of Representatives formally brought impeachment charges.March 16, 1868Johnson impeachment trial takes place – avoids removal by one vote.
3Owned slaves prior to war April 15, 1865Johnson becomes President of the United States upon the death of President Abraham Lincoln- Even though Lincoln’s Vice President, Johnson was a Southerner (from Tennessee) and was a Democrat (unlike Lincoln).Owned slaves prior to war“He held no views on race that could be considered ‘unorthodox’ in the South.”
4After he kept Lincoln’s cabinet, Congress started to oppose him. Late-April, 1865In spite of strong opposition from Republicans in Congress, Johnson keeps Lincoln’s cabinet in tact.InteriorCaleb SmithJohn UsherTreasury:Salmon Chase,Hugh McCullochNavy:Gideon WellesRepublicans in Congress hoped Johnson would be tougher on the South than Lincoln was.After he kept Lincoln’s cabinet, Congress started to oppose him.Postmaster General:Montgomery BlairWilliam DennisonNote: Since Lincoln was only President for one month into his second term, no good pictures exist of him with his second cabinet. Therefore, pictures with two names show (on top) the name of the man in that position in the first term and (on the bottom) the name of who served there second term. Names in bold yellow show cabinet members from the state of Ohio.War: Edwin StantonAttorney General:Edward Bates,James SpeedStateWilliam Seward
6an official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses May 29, 1865Johnson issues his Proclamation of Amnesty, which proposes his plan for Reconstruction. He does this while Congress is not in session…on purpose.- There had been an ongoing struggle between the Executive and Legislative branches of government over who would direct Reconstruction.By issuing his plan when Congress was not in session, it made it clear to the public who was in charge…
7Cite election fraud/abuse in Southern states December, 1865Radical Republicans in Congress refuse to seat those elected from rebel statesCite election fraud/abuse in Southern statesRadicals in Congress advocate a Congressional-takeover of Reconstruction
8Congress eventually overrides veto February 19, 1866President Johnson vetoes a bill to increase funding for, and extends, Freedman’s Bureau.Many in Congress begin to rise up and stop Johnson’s efforts to dismantle ReconstructionCongress eventually overrides veto
9Speech delivered one day after Congress overrides veto February 22, 1866Johnson gives a speech on George Washington’s birthday, calling radicals in Congress “dis-unionists.”Speech delivered one day after Congress overrides vetoJohnson called out many Congressmen by name; accused them of being disloyal to Union
10March 27, 1866Johnson vetoes the Civil Rights Bill. This bill extended citizenship to “all persons born in the United States…of every race and color…without regard to previous condition of servitude.”Congress overrides the veto 3 weeks laterBut, Congress worried the act wouldn’t survive future Congresses.Resolutions are brought forward in Congress that would later become the 14th Amendment.
12May, 1866Tensions heighten between the President and Congress due to race riots in Memphis, TN.Conflict between black soldiers and white peace officers leads to death of 46 men, women, and children; 4 black churches and 12 schools burned.Pushes public opinion closer toward the Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction.
13Race riots take place in New Orleans, LA. July, 1866Race riots take place in New Orleans, LA.Riots are cited as evidence that the President’s “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction” was not working.
14Speeches viewed as ineffective. August, 1866To save his plan (and his image) Johnson travels across the country, delivers famous “Swing Around the Circle” speechesSpeeches viewed as ineffective.Johnson continues to label the Radicals in Congress as “dis-unionists.”Intended to garner support for those in Congress who supported his plan before the mid-term elections.
15the proposed 14th amendment. November, 1866Radicals win many victories in the 1866 mid-term elections – gain majorities of over two-thirds in each branch of Congress.What does this mean, if the Radicals now have over 2/3 support in each side of Congress?Radicals believed themselves to be in a good position to demand that Southern states acceptthe proposed 14th amendment.
17March 2, 1867The new Congress passes the first Reconstruction Act. Johnson vetoes the act, but is quickly overridden by the new Congress (remember, radicals have 2/3 majority in both sides).Divides the south into 5 military districts to enforce a stricter Reconstruction policy.Required states ratify the 14th Amendment before it could be readmitted or have its representatives seated in CongressFirmly placed control of Reconstruction into the hands of Congress, not the President.
19March 2, 1867Congress overrides Johnson’s veto of the Tenure of Office Act.Required Senate approval before the President could dismiss any government official who was originally approved by the Senate (including members of the cabinet)Done to protect Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton, since he was supporter of Radical agenda- Law eventually struck down in 1926 as unconstitutional!
20August 12, 1867Johnson temporarily suspends Secretary of War Edwin Stanton and replaces him with General Ulysses S. Grant. Congress is out of session at the time.Oh, snap! Is this legal?
21Johnson ignores Senate vote and presents Stanton with formal dismissal January, 1868The Senate votes when they return and they do not consent to removing Stanton.Johnson ignores Senate vote and presents Stanton with formal dismissalThis was a flagrant violation of the Tenure of Office Act, and sufficient grounds for impeachment.
229 of 11 charges are on violation of Tenure of Office Act February 24, 1868Impeachment charges filed against Johnson by the House of Representatives.9 of 11 charges are on violation of Tenure of Office ActThe remaining 2 charges dealt with his libelous speech against members of Congress.Libel: published false statements that are damaging to one’s character
23March 30, 1868The Senate begins the first ever impeachment trial of a U.S. president.While a president who is found guilty can remain in office, most Americans agreed that if found guilty then he had to leave.
24May 16, 1868The Senate fails to convict Johnson of the impeachment by only one vote.Andrew Johnson was acquitted of all charges filed in the impeachment.A later Supreme Court (1926; Myers vs. United States) ruling that the Tenure of Office Act was “invalid.”Johnson had the power to dismiss Stanton all along!acquit: free someone from a criminal charge by a verdict of not guilty.
25The aftermath of Johnson’s impeachment? - Vetoed virtually every act of Congress through the remainder of his term and Congress continued to override himJohnson was the only President to be impeached until the 1998 impeachment of Bill Clinton. The only two presidents to be impeached were both acquitted!- Could not secure the Democratic nomination for President in (Horatio Seymour got it!)- Replaced by Ulysses S Grant in 1868