Presentation on theme: "Integrating Team-based Learning & PBL Mark A. Serva, Ph.D. University of Delaware."— Presentation transcript:
Integrating Team-based Learning & PBL Mark A. Serva, Ph.D. University of Delaware
Team-based Learning Originated by Larry Michaelson in the late 1970s at University of Oklahoma Sought a method of connecting with students in large sections without resorting to lecture Discovered that not only did students tolerate the large sections, they thrived
Four Essential Principles of TBL 1. Groups must be properly formed and managed 2. Students must be held accountable for their individual and group work 3. Group assignments must promote both learning and team development 4. Students must have frequent and timely performance feedback Michaelson, L., Knight, A., and Fink, D. (2002). Team-based Learning: A Transformative Use of Small Groups, Praeger Publishers: Westport, CT.
What is Team-based Learning? Planning Phase Instructor breaks a class into 5-7 modules that are approximately 2-3 weeks long Instructor identifies the key learning objectives within each module Learning objectives should emphasize “doing” as well as “knowing” Preparation Phase Before the start of each module, students are assigned readings, exercises, videos, or other preparatory materials Goal is not mastery, but instead an introduction to concepts and ideas (TOC versus index) At the start of a module’s first class, a RAP (Readiness Assessment Process) is administered
TBL (continued) Application Phase (the “fun stuff”!). Teams: Solve Problems (PBL!) Apply the concepts in a tangible manner Focus on formative—not summative—assessment Are continually challenged as problems increase in difficulty as the module progresses Assessment Phase Allow students to demonstrate their mastery Summative assessment and individual accountability
Preparation Phase: RAP 1. Assign Readings/Videos in Preparation Phase 2. Individual RAT (iRAP). Each student takes a 5-10 question quiz on the assigned material. 3. Team RAT (tRAP). Each team takes the SAME quiz on the assigned material using the IFAT. During this time, the iRATs are graded. 4. Appeals. Students may appeal to earn back a question by writing a short defense of their answer. 5. Oral Instructor Feedback. Based on RAP performance, instructor tailors his/her follow up comments.
Why is the RAP an effective process for kicking off a module?
Application Phase TBL recommends using the 4S approach for developing problems The 4S’s Mnemonic: Significant problem: Students are given an authentic and relevant problem Same problem: Each team works on the same problem, case, or question. Specific choice: Each team applies theoretical concepts to make a specific choice. Requires teams to synthesize work into a cohesive response. Simultaneously report: All teams report their specific choice simultaneously, not sequentially.
4S Example: Probability & Statistics You are in charge of Casino Night for your college organization, and have been asked to design a Pick Six Lottery for use that evening. About 200 people are expected to attend. Make a specific recommendation on: How many numbers should players be able to choose from? Based on the above, be prepared to discuss (1) The probability that someone will win (2) How much a winner should win, and (3) why your selection is the optimal one. To increase interest, draw a number line on the board and have teams put an X on their answers all at the same time
PBL versus TBL Group Size PBL varies, but typically 4-5 TBL: 5-7 Nature of the problems TBL focuses on the 4S model PBL is more open, focusing on challenging problems More similar than different, in practice
Integrating TBL with PBL TBL provides an effective and useful model “around” PBL The RAP provides a mechanism for student accountability, a common criticism of PBL PBL provides a broader framework for in-class problems, while TBL provides a more directed approach. Both TBL and PBL can be used to change up a class and heighten learning
Synergies TBL TBL provides a method for ensuring student accountability through the RAP TBL also provides a directed framework for creating in-class exercises PBL Provides a broader framework for in-class problems Focuses on “the problem” as motivation for learning Flipping Leverages the new resources that are available to enable both TBL and PBL All three can (should?) be integrated to improve the classroom learning experience