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A Review of the Current Literature on Female Adventure Tourists Adele Doran.

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Presentation on theme: "A Review of the Current Literature on Female Adventure Tourists Adele Doran."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Review of the Current Literature on Female Adventure Tourists Adele Doran

2 Presentation Outline Proposed title and research objectives Review of literature and gaps in research Next steps

3 The motives, constraints and benefits for women of packaged mountain adventure tourism Research Objectives: To understand how female adventure tourists perceive adventure To identify the motivations of female mountain adventure tourists To examine the constraints on female mountain adventure tourists To investigate how women negotiate with adventure tourism in their lives To identify and compare the benefits that female mountain adventure tourists derive from female-only and mixed gender packaged adventure tourism

4 Female Adventure Tourists Account for 60% of small group adventure, many choosing to travel alone (Mintel, 2009) Hard adventure sports VS Soft adventure sports (AATA, 2010) Adventurous activities provide an opportunity (Myers, 2010): – For personal challenge, to overcome fear, develop skills, increase confidence, gain empowerment and adventure capital – To experience natural environment – activate and heighten bodily senses and inner feeling of happiness

5 Female Adventure Tourists The embodiment of tourism (Small, 2007) Bodily movement: Physical activities liberated and controlled Sensual experiences: Sounds (the crisp sound of snow), smells (salt water, animals and flowers), taste (food and drink) and touch (weather) Emotional experiences: Happiness, excitement, negative emotions (shame, guilt, embarrassment, fear and hurt) The body as a project: Clothes, objects of the gaze of others and themselves

6 Female Adventure Tourists: Areas of Further Research Timothy, 2001 – Women travellers use of space, interests and desires Pennington-Grey and Kerstetter, 2001 – The benefits women seek through pleasure travel – Helpful in product development, promotional strategy and target marketing Small, 2007 – Commodification (exploitation) of women’s bodies in the promotion of tourism

7 The Meaning of Adventure for Women Women define adventure as doing something different (Little 2002a, Little and Wilson, 2005) Risk an element of definition – minimised through gaining skills or altering the activity to match abilities (Little, 2002a) Women do not perceive themselves to be adventurous – Media’s perceptions of adventure restricts their own acknowledgement of adventure in their lives (Little, 2002a and Little and Wilson, 2005)

8 Constraints and Negotiating Strategies for Female Adventurists The technical nature of adventure Perceptions of self-doubt Fear Guilt with regards to their sense of commitment to others / gender role expectations Lack of experience Perception of adventure Unwelcoming (Warren, 1996) Not matched to their learning preferences (Warren, 1996) Source: Elsrud, 2002; Little, 2002b

9 Negotiating Strategies for Female Adventurists Adventure recreation (Little, 2002b): – Making time in their lives for adventure – Compromising through extending, shortening or intensifying their time devoted to adventure recreation – Becoming a ‘creative adventurer’ – Anticipation by planning and preparing for future adventures Tourism: Construction of adventure through ‘emancipative stories’ (Elsrud, 2005): – Placing adventure as a means of taking charge of identity – Claiming that women are competent adventurers too – Placing women alongside men on the adventure trail

10 Negotiating Strategies for Female Adventurists Constraints do not prevent participation They can influence the decision and negotiation process to participate (Little, 2000) – Individual’s motivations, preferences and negotiation skills influence an individual’s response and recognition of constraints Some constraints are socially constructed – not easy/quick to deconstruct Tourism industry needs to understand constraining factors that may prevent women from participating in adventurous activities (Hudson, 2000; Wilson and Little, 2005)

11 Reasons for choosing a female- only experience (McDermott’s, 2004) Meet and be with other women Perceived sense of ‘equality’ For learning and performing psychical skills Empowering women physically and socially (gender resistance) Exclusivity of all-women programmes and sense of community (Hornibrook et al, 1997) New experiences in a non- competitive environment Key Benefits (Hornibrook et al, 1997) Participating with like-minded women with similar interests Opportunity to develop skills in a supportive environment To learn from female facilitators who provide a positive role model Being able to talk freely

12 Women Adventure Programmes Women can feel intimidated by men in mixed gender groups (Nolan and Priest, 1993) Women often expect different outcomes than men (Nolan and Priest, 1993) Programmes must be designed to recognise women’s needs (Hornibrook et al, 1997; Nolan and Priest, 1993)

13 Women Adventure Programmes: Areas of Further Research Comparative research on: – Benefits and motivations associated with both all male, all female and mixed gender adventure programmes – Should utilise male, female and mixed gender facilitators with male, female and mixed gender participants Source: Hornibrook et al, 1997

14 Concluding Points These studies have revealed that: – Women perceive adventure differently to men – Due to a wide rage of constraints, including gender role expectations, women have utilised negotiation strategies to maintain adventure in their lives – Shared experiences and the friendships that arise from participation in adventure activities is important – Women value women-only programmes and derive unique benefits from such experiences

15 Next Steps Develop conceptual framework and research design – Qualitative and inductive approach – Interpretive model – Ethnographic orientation July – Pilot field work

16 Questions? Feedback?

17 References AATA (Adventure Travel Trade Association). 2010. Adventure Tourism Market Report. Available from: http://www.adventuretravelnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Adventure-Travel-Market- 2010FINALAug26.pdf (Accessed 01 December 2011). http://www.adventuretravelnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Adventure-Travel-Market- 2010FINALAug26.pdf Bialeschki, M. D. 1994. Re-entering Leisure: Transition Within the Role of Motherhood. Journal of leisure Research, 26 (1), 57-74. Boniface, M. 2006. The Meaning of Adventure Activities for ‘Women in the Outdoors’. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 6 (1), pp. 9-24. Culp, R. 1998. Adolescent Girls and Outdoor Recreation: A Case Study Examining Constraints and Effective Programming. Journal of Leisure Research, 30 (3), pp. 356-379. Elsrud, T. 2001. Risk creation in travelling: Backpacker Adventure Narration. Annals of Tourism Research, 28 (3), pp. 597-617. Elsrud, T. 2005. Recapturing the Adventuress: Narratives on Identity and Gendered Positioning in Backpacking. Tourism Review International, 9, pp. 123-137. Henderson, K. 1996. Women and the Outdoors: Towards Spiritual Empowerment. In: Warren, K. (Ed) Women’s Voices in Experiential Education. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company. Hudson, S. 2000. The Segmentation of Potential Tourists: Constraint Differences between Men and Women. Journal of Travel Research, 38, pp. 363-368. Hornibrook, T., Brinkert, E., Parry, D., Seimens, R., Mitten, D. and Priest, S. 1997. The benefits and motivations of all women outdoor programmes. The Journal of Experiential Education, 20 (3), pp. 152-158.

18 References Little, D. 2000. Negotiating Adventure Recreation: How Women can Access Satisfying Adventure Experiences Throughout their Lives. Loisir et societe/Society and Leisure, 23 (1), pp. 171-195. Little, D. 2002a. How do women construct adventure recreation in their lives? Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 2 (1), 55-69. Little, D. 2002b. Women and Adventure Recreation: Reconstructing Leisure Constraints and Adventure Experiences to Negotiate Continuing Participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34 (2), pp. 157-177. Little, D. and Wilson, E. 2005. Adventure and the Gender Gap: Acknowledging Diversity of Experience. Loisir et societe/Society and Leisure, 28 (1), pp. 185-208. McDermott, L. 2004. Exploring intersections of physicality and female-only canoeing experiences. Leisure Studies, 23 (3), pp. 283-301. Mintel, 2009. Activity Holidays – UK. February 2010. Available from: http://academic.mintel.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/sinatra/oxygen_academic/my_repor ts/display/id=479866&anchor=atom/display/id=508092/display/id=508051#atom3 [Accessed 26 November 2011]. http://academic.mintel.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/sinatra/oxygen_academic/my_repor ts/display/id=479866&anchor=atom/display/id=508092/display/id=508051#atom3 Myers, L. 2010. Women Travellers’ Adventure Tourism Experiences in New Zealand. Annals of Leisure Research, 13 (1-2), pp. 116-142.

19 References Nolan, T.L. and Priest, S. 1993. Outdoor Programmes for Women Only? Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 10 (1), pp. 14-17. Pennington, L.A. and Kerstetter, D.L. 2001. What Do University-Education Women Want from Their Pleasure Travel Experiences? Journal of Travel Research, 40, pp. 49-56. Pohl, S., Borrie, W. and Patterson, M. 2000. Women, Wilderness and Everyday Life: A Documentation of the Connection between Wilderness Recreation and Women’s Everyday Lives. Journal of Leisure Research, 32 (4), pp. 415-434. Small, J. 2007. The Emergence of the Body in the Holiday Accounts of Women and Girls. In: A. Pritchard, N. Morgan, I. Ateljevic and C. Harris. eds. Tourism and Gender: Embodiment, Sensuality and Experience. Wallingford: UK: CAB International. pp. 73-89. Timothy, D.J. 2001. Gender relations in tourism: Revisiting patriarchy and under- development. In Y. Apostologpoulos, S. Sonmez and D. J.Timothy. eds. Women as producers and consumers of tourism in developing regions. Westport, CT: Praeger. pp. 235-248. Wilson, E. and Little, D. 2005. A ‘Relative Escape’? The Impact of Constraints on Women who Travel Solo. Tourism Review International, 9, pp. 155-175.


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