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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-1 Improving Occupational Health, Safety, and Security Chapter 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-1 Improving Occupational Health, Safety, and Security Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-1 Improving Occupational Health, Safety, and Security Chapter 16

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-2 Why Employee Safety and Health Are Important? Staggering number of work-related accidents About 5,000 U.S. workers died in workplace accidents Roughly 4.4 cases of occupational injuries and illnesses resulting from accidents at work per 100 full-time U.S. workers

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-3 Manager’s Briefing on Occupational Law Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 was created to assure U.S. workers safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve human resources The act created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to administer the act and to set and enforce the safety and health standards that apply to most all U.S. workers

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-4 OSHA Standards OSHA operates under the “general duty clause” that each employer shall furnish to each of his (or her) employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his (or her) employees OSHA is responsible for promulgating legally enforceable standards

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-5

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-6 OSHA Recordkeeping Procedures Employers with 11 or more employees must maintain a record of and report occupational injuries and illnesses Occupational illnesses are any abnormal conditions or disorders caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment Occupational injuries result in medical treatment (other than first aid), loss of consciousness, restriction of work or motion or job transfer

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-7

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-8 Inspections and Citations OSHA enforces standards through inspections and if necessary citations however OSHA may not conduct warrantless inspections without an employer’s consent OSHA encourages voluntary consultation by providing on request free onsite safety and health services for small businesses separate from OSHA inspection

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-9 Inspection Priorities OSHA takes a “worst-first” approach in setting priorities –Imminent danger, catastrophes and fatal accidents –Employee complaints –Programmed inspections –Follow-up inspections OSHA looks for violations of all types but some areas grab more of their attention

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-10

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Citations and Penalties Citations inform the employer/employees of the regulations and/or standards violated and the time set for rectifying the problem Penalties are calculated based on violation gravity and usually take into consideration factors like business size, compliance history and good faith –Range between $5,000 up to $70,000 –Occasionally can be far higher (in the millions)

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-12

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Employers/Employees Responsibilities Employers are responsible for providing a workplace free from hazard, for being familiar with OSHA standards and for examining workplace conditions for compliance Employees are responsible for complying with applicable OSHA standards, for following all employer safety and health rules and regulations and for reporting hazardous conditions to supervisors

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Employer/Employee Rights Employers have the right to make “a diligent effort to discourage, by discipline if necessary, violations of safety rules by employees” Employees have a right to demand safety and health on the job without fear of punishment

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What Causes Accidents? Chance occurrences Unsafe working conditions Unsafe acts by employees

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Unsafe Working Conditions Can include the following obvious conditions: –Faulty scaffolds –Improperly guarded equipment –Frayed wiring –Unsafe storage, such as overloading –Improper illumination –Improper ventilation

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Toxic Safety Climates Toxic safety climates can affect entire workplaces Toxic safety climates usually include high stress environments, pressure to quickly complete the work and a general poor safety climate

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Other Working Conditions Factors Work schedules and fatigue –Accident rates do not increase noticeably during the first 5 or 6 hours of the workday –After 6 hours, the accident rate accelerates –Partly due to fatigue and partly due to accidents occurring more frequently during night shifts High seasonal layoffs

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Temporary stress factors such as –High workplace temperature –Poor illumination –Congested workplace Other Working Conditions Factors, cont.

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Unsafe Acts Employees cause accidents through unsafe acts –Throwing materials –Operating or working at unsafe speeds –Making safety devices inoperative –Lifting improperly

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What Traits Characterize “Accident- Prone” People? Impulsive Sensation-seeking Extremely extroverted Less conscientious

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How to Prevent Accidents Reduce unsafe working conditions Reduce unsafe acts Use screening to reduce unsafe acts Use posters and other propaganda Provide safety training Using incentives and positive reinforcement Emphasize top management commitment Set specific loss control goals

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Fostering a Culture of Safety Fostering a safety culture requires: –Teamwork –Communication and collaboration –Shared vision of safety –Assignment of critical safety functions –Continuous effort toward identifying and correcting problems

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-24

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Conduct Regular Safety and Health Inspections Conduct thorough safety audits –Routinely inspect for possible safety and health problems using checklists –Review and analyze safety-related data

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-26

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Organize a safety committee Protect vulnerable workers Offer special safety training for Hispanic workers –Teach the program in Spanish –Recruit instructors from the ethnic groups they’re training –Provide multi-lingual cross training –Address cultural differences –Don’t skimp on training Conduct Regular Safety and Health Inspections, cont.

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Employee Health Problems and Remedies Typical workplace hazards include –Alcoholism and substance abuse –Chemicals and other hazardous materials –Excessive noise and vibrations –Temperature extremes –Biohazards including normally occurring ones –Ergonomic hazards

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Creating a drug-free workplace program –Drug-free workplace policy –Supervisor training –Employee education –Employee assistance –Drug testing Testing tools like the CAGE and MAST

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11-30

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Job Stress and Burnout Stress triggers can include: –Work schedule –Pace of work –Job security –Route to and from work –Workplace noise –Number and nature of customers/clients

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Reducing Your Own Job Stress Build rewarding, pleasant, cooperative relationships with as many of your colleagues and employees as possible Don’t bite off more than you can chew Build an especially effective and supportive relationship with your boss Find time everyday for detachment/relaxation

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Understand the boss’s problems and help him or her understand yours Negotiate with your boss for realistic deadlines Get away from your office from time to time Don’t put off dealing with distasteful problems Create a constructive “worry list” Reducing Your Own Job Stress, cont.

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What the Employer Can Do Primary prevention by ensuring that job design and workflows are correct Intervention by assessing employees to find sources of work stress Rehabilitation through employee assistance programs and counseling

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Burnout Burnout is the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal Symptoms include: ―Irritability ―Discouragement ―Entrapment ―Resentment

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Breaking Burnout Break your patterns Get away from it all periodically Reassess your goals in terms of their intrinsic worth Think about your work

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Other Work Problems Depression Asbestos exposure Computer monitor health problems Workplace smoking Workplace violence Terrorism

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Dealing with Workplace Violence Heighten safety measures Improve employee screening Use workplace violence training Be cognizant of workplace violence towards women

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Dealing with Terrorism Check mail carefully Identify ahead of time a lean “crisis organization” that can run the company after a terrorist threat Identify in advance under what conditions you will close the company and the necessary processes Institute a process to put the crisis management team together

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Prepare evacuation plans and make sure exits are well marked and unblocked Designate an employee who will communicate with families and off-site employees Identify an upwind, off-site location near your facility to use as a staging area for evacuated employees Designate in advance several employees who will do headcounts at staging area Dealing with Terrorism, cont.

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Establish an emergency text-messaging policy and procedure to notify affected individuals that an emergency may exist Dealing with Terrorism, cont.

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Setting up a Basic Security Program Analyze the current level of risk Install mechanical, natural and organizational security measures

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


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