Presentation on theme: "Program Goal #13: Knowledge of Psychological Benefits of Regular Exercise Miss Lawley Core 4."— Presentation transcript:
Program Goal #13: Knowledge of Psychological Benefits of Regular Exercise Miss Lawley Core 4
It’s not just physical! The physical benefits (physiological) of exercise are obvious. Exercise is so much about the physical benefits: increased strength, fitness, speed and power as well as aesthetic appeal. HOWEVER, what is also greatly affected by exercise is the MIND. There are just as many psychological benefits of exercise to consider. Exercise is good for both the BODY and MIND.
Regular exercise has been proven to: Reduce stress Reduce feelings of depression/ improve mood Boost self-esteem Improve sleep Sharpen memory Help control addiction Increase relaxation Heighten productivity Increase IQ
But how? WHAT- ENDORPHINS are hormones that functions as a neurotransmitter HOW- Endorphins are produced during times of stress. Heavy weights or training that incorporates sprinting or anaerobic exertion produces endorphins. They attach to receptors on the outer surfaces of brain cells. EFFECT-These are “feel good hormones” you feel calm, energized and optimistic. Endorphins block feelings of pain and create feelings of euphoria. Endorphins are responsible for the ability to hide pain. This explains why we play without noticing blisters till afterwards.
Endorphins are our friend Endorphins are designed to be produced during times of stress – to help us run and fight through pain and injury (like adrenaline). When we exercise, our brain interprets it as the body being under stress and needing you to remain calm, happy and pain free to perform. This makes exercise a great way to deal with daily troubles. If you are feeling low, lethargic or unmotivated, then a quick workout can help get you back on form. Regular exercise might help your “base level” of hormones to be more positive and euphoric making it a great natural antidepressant.
Neurogenesis creates new brain cells WHAT- NEUROGENESIS is an increase in the brain’s vol ume of gray matter (actual neurons) and white matter (con nections between neurons). HOW- Cardiovascular exercise triggers increased blood flow to the brain, biochemical changes occur that spur the pro duction of new connections between neurons and even of neu rons themselves. Neurogenesis creates new brain cells! EFFECT-This can improve short term memory which in turn helps us with non-verbal reasoning– improving our “fluid intelligence” (intelligence which doesn’t require previous knowledge). Boosts chemicals in the brain that support and prevent degeneration of the hippocampus (memory hub of the brain).
Exercise and Epinephrine WHAT- EPINEPHRINE is a hormone HOW-Regular HIGH intensity exercise (sprinting, weight training) will increase the circulating levels of these chemicals. EFFECT-increases heart rate and blood pressure, elevates temperature, stimulate the sympathetic nervous system [used for voluntary muscle contraction], represses the parasympathetic nervous system [used for digestion, immune response, injury repair, and sleeping] and increases cortisol levels. Epinephrine improves athletic performance and heightens the body's senses. Effects on the brain involve the areas that regulate attention, sleep, learning and emotions. When released, it stimulates the emotional and cognitive centers of the brain. When produced in normal amounts, it can create a sense of well- being, as well as euphoria.
Exercise and testosterone WHAT- TESTOSTERONE is a hormone HOW- Exercise causes your pituitary gland to send the message to produce more testosterone. EFFECT- Testosterone has various roles e.g. maintaining bone density, levels of red blood cells and a sense of well-being. It can help us to feel more optimistic, driven, ambitious and confident. Low levels of testosterone, in both men and women, can lead to a number of serious health conditions, including increased risk of depression, low sex drive, obesity, and osteoporosis.
Exercise and self-esteem Correct and regular exercise makes you fitter. This obviously has psychological benefits through the way people treat you and through the way you feel in yourself. Improved self-esteem is a key psychological benefit of regular physical activity. If you have ever experienced the heart-thumping, invigorated state of a high-intensity cardio workout, you have likely had that surge of ENTHUSIASM that follows. One of the bonuses of having this boost is that your brain accesses a state in which your world feels manageable and more hopeful. You feel more ‘on top of the world’, and better about yourself. Experiencing an increase in confidence is one of the best pay- offs of exercise.
Exercise and Dopamine WHAT- DOPAMINE is a neurotransmitter -- a molecule that neurons release to communicate with each other HOW- Low to moderate exercise raises levels of dopamine EFFECT- Dopamine affects movement, emotional response and your ability to feel pleasure. It is responsible for sleeping and waking cycles.
Exercise and confidence When we feel good, we see the world through brighter lenses. We tend to feel more confident, excited and more assured. When we hold our bodies upright and strong, this sends signals to the mind that we are proud and confident. We also feel more motivated to complete tasks, which, in turn gives us confidence in our ability to get things done. Feeling confident can carry into plenty of areas of your life: your interactions with others tend to be more positive, you convey assuredness, you are more willing to try new things, and you are easy to be around. When you feel good, you look good. People respond well to a confident demeanor.
Exercise and depression Research has shown that exercise is an effective but often underused treatment for mild to moderate depression.
Finding the right “prescription” Before you begin an exercise program, here are some questions you should consider: What physical activities do I enjoy? Do I prefer group or individual activities? What programs best fit my schedule? Do I have physical conditions that limit my choice of exercise? What goals do I have in mind? (For example: weight loss/gain, strengthening muscles, improving flexibility or mood enhancement)
Types of Exercise Flexibility e.g. stretching Aerobic e.g. running Anaerobic e.g. weight training
Flexibility Frequency: It is recommended to stretch all of the major muscle groups daily—or at the very least, each time you exercise (a minimum of 3-4 times per week). Intensity: Stretch in a slow, steady motion to the point of “mild discomfort.” Time: Ideally, most experts recommend that people stretch for minutes per day. Hold each stretch for seconds, repeating one or two more times.
Aerobic exercise Frequency: Aim for 3 days per week with no more than 2 days off between sessions. Gradually work your way up to 5 or 6 days per week. Frequency is especially important since more cardio sessions will help you burn more calories. Give yourself at least 1 to 2 days off from aerobic exercise each week. Intensity: Aerobic exercise should take place at a “moderate” intensity level (not too easy, not too hard). Exercise intensity is most often measured using heart rate. The recommended heart rate range is 60%-85% of your maximum heart rate. This range is called the target heart rate (THR) zone. Time: Aim for a minimum of 20 minutes per session. Gradually work up to about 60 minutes over time. The further you go over 20 minutes, the more calories you’ll burn and the more endurance you will build. Time can be cumulative. You can do several 10- minute mini-workouts each day and add them up for pretty much the same benefits.
Anaerobic exercise Frequency: Aim to train each muscle group at least two times per week, and up to three if you have the time. Rest at least 1 day in between working the same muscle(s) again. If you split up your strength training (due to time, schedule or personal preference), and do upper body exercises on Monday and lower body exercises on Tuesday, it’s okay to lift two days in a row—because you are working different muscles. Intensity : The intensity of the resistance you lift should challenge you. It should be high enough that as you approach your last repetition, you feel muscle exhaustion. E.g. if you are going to do 10 reps of biceps curls, don’t merely stop on that 10th rep if you haven’t reached muscle exhaustion. You could either continue doing reps until you do reach exhaustion, or take this as a sign that the weight you are lifting is too light. Increase your weight until you do feel exhausted on the 10th rep. How much weight/resistance you lift will work hand in hand with the number of reps you do (see Time below). Time : Most people lift somewhere between 8 and 15 reps, which equals one set. Most people do 1-3 sets with rest in between each set. Most experts recommend between 8 and 15 reps per set. If your goal is to build strength and muscle size, then aim for fewer reps (like 8-10). Because you are doing fewer reps, you will need a heavier weight to reach muscle exhaustion in each set, so that’s where the words “heavy weight, low reps” come from. If your goal is general fitness or endurance, then aim for more reps (like 10-15). Because you are doing so many, you’ll need a lighter weight
How often should I exercise to feel results? One must participate in regular exercise in order to achieve maximum benefits. Try to exercise at least 20 to 30 minutes, three times a week. Studies indicate that exercising four or five times a week is even better! Take it easy if you are just beginning; start exercising for 20 minutes. Then you can build up to 30 and eventually 60 minutes per session.
How do I get started? Plan a routine that is easy to follow and maintain. When you start feeling comfortable with your routine, then you can start varying your exercise times and activities. Choose an activity you enjoy. Exercising should be FUN!! Put your exercise routine into your schedule. If you need reminding, put it on your calendar. Variety is the spice of life. Make sure you vary your exercises so that you don't get bored. Check your local gymnasium or community center for an assortment of exercise programs. Don't let exercise programs break the bank. Unless you are going to be using them regularly, avoid buying health club memberships or expensive equipment. You can do so much on your own!! Stick with it! If you exercise regularly, it will soon become part of your lifestyle.
Activities with psychological benefits Yoga Running/Jogging/Walking Hiking Biking Dancing Golf (walking instead of using the cart) Housework, especially sweeping, mopping or vacuuming Low-Impact Aerobics Playing tennis Swimming Yard work, especially mowing or raking Weight lifting
Which process/mechanism aids in the following: Reduce stress- Alleviate anxiety - Reduce feelings of depression/improve mood- Boost self-esteem- Improve sleep- Sharpen memory- Help control addiction- Increase relaxation- Heighten productivity- Increase IQ- Endorphin production Testosterone Production Neurogenesis Epinephrine and Production Dopamine Production
It’s NEVER too late to start an exercise program. But it’s ALWAYS too early to stop …