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The Age of Jackson Rebirth of Jeffersonian Democracy.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jackson Rebirth of Jeffersonian Democracy."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Jackson Rebirth of Jeffersonian Democracy

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4 The election of 1824 Until 2000…the most compelling election in history? Players: Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams Henry Clay William Crawford

5 The results?

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8 Henry Clay: the key player in the election? 12 th Amendment? Clay as speaker of the house…holds all the cards in the election…why?

9 Clay on Jackson? A ringing endorsement? “I cannot believe that killing 2500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies him for the various difficult and complicated duties of the Presidency”

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11 The final two in 24

12 Adams…characteristics? Election results label him a “minority” president…correlation to today? Lineage Attitude Political parties…disdain. Aggressive

13 John Quincy Adams as President Ranking sheet? Expand American System Sale of public land to improve nation Promote art and literature Est. a National University Finance Science Protect Indian rights and prevent the sale of their land

14 The Birth of the Democratic Party: 1828 Done out of large part to spite John Adams, a movement spearheaded by Jackson in 1828.

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16 Jacksonian Democracy Like Jefferson, Jackson believed that every American, no matter if they’re poor or rich, educated or uneducated, had the right to run for office. Under the influence of Jefferson and Jackson, the Democratic Party grew. Democrats believed that: The people should govern themselves and not depend on a king to rule them. Government should serve the people; people are not servants to government.

17 Jacksonian Campaigns? Campaigns…forever changed! Parades, barbecues, tree plantings, buttons, posters, and clothes Songs, bands, propaganda Resembled a modern election with old fashioned means. Goal? Heighten interest and promote democracy, get people participating.

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20 The Age of Jackson

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22 Jackson as President Rankings? Our first “sectional” president Very popular Only president to kill a man in a duel Kitchen cabinet: symbolic of Jackson’s informal style of governance Spoils System

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24 Jackson and the Veto? Used it as a legitimate political tactic to challenge the other branches of government Used it to get back at Henry Clay!

25 Jackson and the Indians A major black eye for US History Assimilate versus Isolate? Problem here? Jackson and the Reservation philosophy Page 263…comments Conflicts arise over the issue of Reservationism

26 Black Hawk and Osceola Resist Epitomizing the problems evident in the situation. Black Hawk War led by the skilled Chief Osceola

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28 Chief Blackhawk and the story of the Black Hawk War

29 Battle of Bad Axe

30 Jackson and the Indians Court decisions support the Indians…John Marshall in the decision Worcester v. Georgia-1832 held that the Cherokees had autonomy in their lands. Jackson’s stubborn response? “Marshall has made his decision…now let him enforce it!”

31 The Trail of Tears The defining moment in the issue of Indian Rights…Jackson’s forced movement of the Cherokee out of their homeland in Georgia to the areas in and around Oklahoma. The 800 mile journey home as made partly by steamboat, partly by rail, and partly by foot They lost more than a ¼ of their people.

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33 Trail of Tears: Links A terrific site on the trail of tears and its impact:

34 Jackson Divides The Nation While it seems that for months we have been pointing to the upcoming sectionalism…the best example of Presidential politics breeding this sectionalism comes during the age of Jackson. Jackson will serve to drive a stake through the nation with his policies and actions during his powerful presidency.

35 Sectional Issues Tear Apart The Nation There were two main issues during the Jacksonian period that would nearly bring us to our own destruction internally between the sections of the nation. They are:

36 Issue #1 Jackson and the Bank Why Jackson hated the Bank? Everything he stood against, privilege, aristocracy and concentrated wealth. Impact on Farmers…distrusted Paper money and the foreclosure of farms/homes. Hated its founder Nicholas Biddle.

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44 The divisive Andrew Jackson-a “decapitated bust” from the USS Constitution in 1834.

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46 Jackson, the Bank and the election of 1832 Clay and Webster (running against Jackson) assumed that the public liked the bank and wanted to take this opportunity to make the bank an issue. If Jackson vetoed the rechartering act in Congress he would be viewed as an enemy of the bank and as a result would lose the election.

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48 Clay/Webster’s problem… The people hated the bank and Jackson won easily! Cartoons page 271 Jackson’s popularity approaching “King” like levels. Jackson destroys the banks, and the economy in one “clean sweep”. The Pet Banks.

49 Two impacts of Jackson’s bank war: Wall street: Jackson’s war simply replaced one privilged group with another and this one would last much much longer! Whig Party is formed Formed out of the bank dispute in 1833 it consisted of Northern Democrats and Republicans who disagreed with Jacksonian Economics

50 Issue #2: The Tariff/States Rights Purpose of the Tariff: protect Northern industry from British goods. Impact on the South? How did the tariff impact the amount of Southern goods the British bought? Little doubt it favored the North

51 Southern Response John C. Calhoun the leader of the Southern response movement to the “Tariff of Abominations” Previously a devout nationalist he had since developed some secessional points of view.

52 Calhoun’s Nullification Calhoun’s argument (South Carolina Exposition and Protest) that the US Constitution was a contract between sovereign states and the states must be sovereign. In a nutshell…every state should have the right to veto, nullify unwanted inapplicable legislation. Nationalist no more!

53 South Carolina Expositon Calhoun said: “If the federal government refuses the right of a state to nullify a law, that state has the right to secede” (or leave the union) Imagination exercise: what impact would this have had this idea been enacted?

54 Webster/Hayne Debates Webster far and away America’s greatest orator. He and Robert Hayne, next page, will in 1830 for 1 week straight debate the issue of the tariff with each talking relentlessly on the matter!

55 The Players Actually, that isn’t really Robert Hayne…couldn’t find his picture

56 The Debate The perspective of Robert Hayne? States are sovereign and have the right to nullify congressional acts otherwise secession is the solution. The Perspective of Daniel Webster? National Government is Supreme and any usurption of power by the states threatens the union.

57 In brief… It is 1830 and these are most certainly explosive times but… Didn’t we solve this in the federalist age when we synthesized our arguments for and against the constitution!

58 The Split: Jackson and Calhoun their differences too great.

59 Transformation of John Calhoun With his role in the events of the 1830’s the image of John Calhoun is dramatically altered he goes from statesman, twice a vice president to rebellious irrational agitator! That is quite a quantum leap!

60 1832: South Carolina Takes Action! A convention is called to delve into the issue of secession, should we secede from the union or use this bluff as a method to lower the tariff? Undoubtedly there will be ramifications either way. Jackson’s recent re-election by a wide margin made any action by the south against him futile as his power was at a zenith.recent re-election

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62 The Force Bill of 1833 Formal declaration by Federal Government that the actions in South Carolina are unacceptable and they will be met with the full force of the US military if need be… Clay saves day with compromise lowering tariff gradually over a 10 year period.

63 Jacksonian Era Images Inauguration of 1832 Assassination attempt! 1835 Fourth of July event 1837: Van Buren follows Jacksons lead! Fourth of July event 1837: Van Buren follows Jacksons lead! Jacksonian Capital The Liberator…problems begin! Perception of a banker!

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70 Post Jacksonian Leadership Martin Van Buren Harrison/Tyler

71 Martin Van Buren Former NYC political machine boss. Jackson’s “lil man” The Lil magician Ranking? Won the election of 1836 Won the election of 1836

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73 Martin’s first years The impact of Jacksonian politics will be felt by his “lil buddy” who will immediately find himself knee deep in the nations worst economic crisis. Specie Circular, speculation and bank closing Problems of decentralization…was the National bank that bad?

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77 The election of 1840 Van Buren never had a chance, perhaps our most snake bit president. Follows Jackson Depression Banking crisis Global drought… Whigs nominate three in

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79 William Henry Harrison A war hero, nominated for his “likeness” socially and historically to Andrew Jackson. Our nations first “war” president, our nations first “copy cat” president. We may have another very soon! By Saturday to be exact.

80 Tragedy strikes Harrison 1 month in to his presidency the ailing Harrison dies of Pnuemonia and we see the nations first non elected president.

81 The age of Tyler Amongst the nations worst leaders. The only one to be kicked out of his own party during the presidency. Angered, Whigs, Democrats and Republicans alike!

82 Ahh, the Veto. He must have paid attention to Jackson because he vetoed everything that crossed his desk…from all parties. The administration saw an amazingly little amount of anything accomplished…The end of a great Whig opportunity. Even their extraditing him from their party wouldn’t save them.

83 The impact of Jackson Negative Indian treatment Spoils system Banking crisis Sectionalism Persona Positive Seems to outweigh negative because he re- established the people as the most important aspect of our democracy and brought government to them.


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