Career Choice Factors Competencies: What am I good at? Comprehension: Personal knowledge of careers and career opportunities. Expectancies: Belief about what a person expects will happen in a given career.
Motives for Working Extrinsic Motives: Motives involving pursuit of external rewards, such as money or approval. Intrinsic Motives: Motives involving pursuit of internal goals, such as self- satisfaction.
Intrinsic Reasons for Working: The work ethic Self-identity Self-fulfillment Self-worth Social values of work Social Roles
Stages of Career Development Fantasy Tentative choice Realistic choice Maintenance Career change Retirement Goal: Maintain flexibility
Writing a Resume While standards for resumes have changed, some things have always been the same: be neat and be serious. Show that you are right for the job and don’t use the same resume for every position.
Writing a Resume Consider the following parts for your resume: Heading Statement of your job objective Summary of your educational background. Summary of your work experience. Personal Information List of references
Common Resume Mistakes Typographical, grammatical, and spelling errors. Use of exotic fonts, cutesy icons or decorative papers. Vague or poorly defined accomplishments. Describe what the employer can do for you. Incomplete contact information. Excessive wordiness. Unrelated information.
Wowing the Interviewer First impressions and neatness count. Avoid perfume and cologne Maintain direct eye contact Look alert, cooperative and friendly Anticipate the questions and prepare responses Be patient, allow the interviewer to give information Flattery works, but only when it is specific to the abilities or accomplishments of the recipient.
Developmental Tasks There are a number of developmental tasks that we undertake when we begin working. Some of these include: Transitioning from school to work Accepting responsibility for your job Accepting subordinate status Getting along with coworkers Finding a mentor Learning to cope with daily job hassles
Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction: The degree to which workers have positive feelings toward their jobs. A Gallup survey found that: 2 out of 3 workers are satisfied with their coworkers. More than half are happy with the physical safety of their workplace. Only 23% are satisfied with their pay.
Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is associated with such factors as opportunity to engage in interesting work, degree of control over work, availability of child-care facilities, and income and fringe benefits. Job satisfaction tends to increase with age and income.
What Determines Job Satisfaction? Job satisfaction depends on a variety of factors such as opportunities to garner intrinsic rewards (such as a sense of accomplishment from performing a job well) and extrinsic rewards (such as high salary, bonuses, professional recognition and awards). However, job satisfaction also depends upon the qualities that the worker brings to the job, such as personal traits and attributional style.
Enhancing Job Satisfaction Increased job satisfaction is associated with lower employee turnover and absenteeism. Employers use several methods to both increase productivity and job satisfaction
Enhancing Job Satisfaction Methods of increasing satisfaction and productivity: Improved recruitment and placement Training and instruction Unbiased appraisal of performance Goal setting Financial compensation Work redesign (quality circles) Work schedules with flextime Integration of new technology
Changing Workplace Technological changes help people find better ways to complete their work. Flexible work shifts are on the rise. About 15% of American workers have flexible schedules. In addition, 45 million Americans have their office in their home. Hoteling: A emerging model in the workplace whereby workers are provided with temporary office space in the home office, which is available to them only when needed.
Work and Stress Many factors make work stressful. High levels of work stress are associated with increased physical symptoms. Organizational stressors include lack of opportunity to participate in decision making, ambiguous policies, low pay and sexism. Stress at work also spills over at home, and vice versa.
Coping with Job Stress Begin with an objective analysis of the workplace to determine if physical conditions help or hinder the quality of life. Provide better matches between employees and positions. Provide social support for employees. Help employees manage stress.
Burnout Burnout: A state of mental and physical exhaustion brought on by overcommitment to work or other responsibilities. Warning signs of burnout include: loss of energy, irritability or short temper, stress- related problems such as depression, difficulty concentrating, loss of motivation, lack of satisfaction or feelings of achievement at work, loss of concern about work in someone who has previously committed, feeling that one has nothing left to give.
Preventing Burnout Establish your priorities Set reasonable goals Take things one day at a time Set limits Share your feelings Build supportive relationships Do things you enjoy Take time for yourself Don’t skip vacations Be attuned to your health
Earnings Gap Women still only earn about ¾ of what men do. Why is there a gap? Though discrimination plays a role, men tend to gravitate towards higher paying specialties and higher paying academic fields. While the gap is narrowing, some sexist attitudes still linger.
Reducing the Earnings Gap Encourage more realistic career planning Provide employers with accurate information about women in the workplace Heighten awareness of the importance of the woman’s career in dual-career marriages Maintain employment continuity and stability Increase job flexibility and provide child care facilities Recruit qualified women into training programs and jobs
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is one of the common and troubling adjustment problems that women-and sometimes men-face in the workplace. Sexual harassment is behavior that consists of deliberate or repeated unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that is not wanted by the recipient. Sexual harassment has more to do with aggressiveness and the abuse of power than with sexual desire.
Resisting Sexual Harassment Convey a professional attitude Discourage harassing behavior, and encourage appropriate behavior Avoid being alone with the harasser Keep a record Talk with the harasser Write a letter to the harasser Seek support File a complaint Seek legal remedies
Finding a Career that Fits The work we do is important to us, thus we want to find the correct fit. Methods of determining fit include occupational assessments such as the Holland’s Vocational Preference Inventory. Balance sheets are another helpful method in making personal decisions, such as a career choice.
Finding Your Dream Job London-Vargas suggests asking yourself the following questions to determine whether your present (or future) position meets both your professional and personal needs: Is the job associated with your interests and passions in life? Will the job help you pursue your dreams? Are you passionate about your work? Did you seek out the job, or did you just happen to fall into it? Does your work make you feel like you’ve accomplished a job well done? Or do you leave work feeling unfulfilled and depressed?
To the Instructor: These slides are intended to provide you a base upon which to build your presentation for Chapter 15 of Nevid’s Psychology and the Challenges of Life. For further student and instructor resources including images from the textbook, quizzes, flashcard activities and e-Grade plus, please visit our website: www.wiley.com/college/nevid www.wiley.com/college/nevid
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