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小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 托福阅读之三大法宝 主讲人 夏晓婷.

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Presentation on theme: "小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 托福阅读之三大法宝 主讲人 夏晓婷."— Presentation transcript:

1 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 托福阅读之三大法宝 主讲人 夏晓婷

2 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 什么是三大法宝? 1. 定位 2. 转移 3. 转化

3 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 主要应用体型 细节题 ---- 1. 事实信息题 2. 否定事实信息题 3. 推断题

4 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 1. The hind leg of Basilosaurus was a significant find because it showed that Basilosaurus ○ lived later than Ambulocetus natans ○ lived at the same time as Pakicetus ○ was able to swim well ○ could not have walked on land

5 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hind leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foot-long Basilosaurus on land.

6 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 2. In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans? ○ It clearly indicates that cetaceans are mammals. ○ It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals. ○ It is the main difference between cetaceans and land- dwelling mammals. ○ It cannot yield clues about the origins of cetaceans.

7 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke1 and blowhole2 cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals.

8 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 3. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters? ○ It is not difficult to imagine what they looked like. ○ There were great numbers of them. ○ They lived in the sea only. ○ They did not leave many fossil remains.

9 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like.

10 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 4.. According to paragraph 3, the loss of natural vegetation has which of the following consequences for soil? ○ Increased stony content ○ Reduced water absorption ○ Increased numbers of spaces in the soil ○ Reduced water runoff

11 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil's ability to absorb substantial quantities of water.

12 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 5. According to paragraph 5, in dry periods, border areas have difficulty ○ adjusting to stresses created by settlement ○ retaining their fertility after desertification ○ providing water for irrigating crops ○ attracting populations in search of food and fuel

13 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: During the dry periods that are common phenomena along the desert margins, though, the pressure on the land is often far in excess of its diminished capacity, and desertification results. 前一句: Expanding populations are subjecting the land to increasing pressures to provide them with food and fuel.

14 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 6. According to paragraph 4, how did the early movies differ from previous spectacles that were presented to large audiences? ○ They were a more expensive form of entertainment. ○ They were viewed by larger audiences. ○ They were more educational. ○ They did not require live entertainers.

15 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and- lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.

16 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 7. According to Darwin's theory of evolution, members of a species are forced to struggle for survival because ○ not all individuals are skilled in finding food ○ individuals try to defend their young against attackers ○ many more individuals are born than can survive until the age of reproduction ○ individuals with certain genes are more likely to reach adulthood

17 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原句: A struggle for survival follows. 前一句: Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than can find food and survive into adulthood.

18 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 8. According to paragraph 5, Freud believed that children experience conflict between a desire to vent aggression on their parents and ○ a frustration that their parents do not give them everything they want ○ a fear that their parents will punish them and stop loving them ○ a desire to take care of their parents ○ a desire to vent aggression on other family members

19 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 原文: Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses.

20 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 9. According to paragraph 4, a Democrat would be most likely to support government action in which of the following areas? ○ Creating a state religion ○ Supporting humanitarian legislation ○ Destroying monopolies ○ Recommending particular moral beliefs

21 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: Despite Andrew Jackson's inclination to be a strong President, Democrats as a rule believed in limited government. Government's role in the economy was to promote competition by destroying monopolies' and special privileges Democrats also rejected the idea that moral beliefs were the proper sphere of government action. Religion and politics, they believed, should be kept clearly separate, and they generally opposed humanitarian legislation.

22 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 10. According to the passage, stiffening the upper lip may have which of the following effects? ○ It first suppresses stress, then intensifies it. ○ It may cause fear and tension in those who see it. ○ It can damage the lip muscles. ○ It may either heighten or reduce emotional response.

23 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: Ekman’s observation may be relevant to the British expression “keep a stiff upper lip” as a recommendation for handling stress. But when the emotion that leads to stiffening the lip is more intense, and involves strong muscle tension, facial feedback may heighten emotional response.

24 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 11. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the mountains of the Himalayas? ○ Their current height is not an indication of their age. ○ At present, they are much higher than the mountains of the Caledonian range. ○ They were a uniform height about 400 million years ago. ○ They are not as high as the Caledonian mountains were 400 million years ago.

25 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: As a general rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently it was formed; for example, the high mountains of the Himalayas are only about 50 million years old. About 400 million years ago, when the present-day continents of North America and Europe were joined, the Caledonian mountain chain was the same size as the modern Himalayas.

26 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 12. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as places that sediment-laden rivers can deposit their sediments EXCEPT ○ A mountain valley ○ Flat land ○ A lake floor ○ The seafloor

27 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope. Sediments are also dropped where a river slows on entering a lake or the sea, the deposited sediments are on a lake floor or the seafloor.

28 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 13. Paragraph 3 suggests which of the following about the people of Latium? ○ Their economy was based on trade relations with other settlements. ○ They held different values than the people of Rome. ○ Agriculture played a significant role in the society. ○ They possessed unusual knowledge of animal instincts.

29 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: In all probability it was the fertile plain of Latium, where the Latins who founded Rome originated, that created the habits and skills of landed settlement,landed property, landed economy, landed administration, and a land-based society.

30 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 14. According to paragraph 4, which of the following statements about steam engines is true? ○ They were used for the production of paper but not for printing. ○ By 1800, significant numbers of them were produced outside of Britain. ○ They were used in factories before they were used to power trains. ○ They were used in the construction of canals and turnpikes.

31 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: A---Early in the new century, it also multiplied ten times over the amount of paper that a single worker could produce in a day. At the same time, operators of the first printing presses run by steam rather than by hand found it possible to produce a thousand pages in an hour rather than thirty. B---By 1800 more than a thousand steam engines were in use in the British Isles.

32 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: C 原文 --- and the stationary steam engine was puffing in the factory and mine. Another generation passed before inventors succeeded in combining these ingredients, by putting the engine on wheels and the wheels on the rails. C 选项 ---They were used in factories before they were used to power trains.

33 小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: Thank you!

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