Contents Clinical Case Why should we learn about cells? Cell Structure Tools of the Cell Biologist Clinical Case Discussion
Clinical Case Patient: Cat, domestic shorthair, 3 years old Presenting Signs and Complaints: Gone for 10 days, returned showing labored breathing Shallow rapid respirations: no lung sounds ausculated; dull chest on percussion Radiograph: Bilateral fluid in chest Problem List: 1. Fluid in chest. 2. Dyspnea
Why should we learn about cells? To obtain passing grades in histology, pathology, biochemistry, etc The pathologic changes were due to malfunctions in cells. Rudolph Ludwig Carl Virchow, 1821–1902
Why should we learn about cells? Increased knowledge of cells and disease will lead to clinical advances such as new vaccines, immunomodulatory drugs that either heighten or suppress the activity of the immune system, new drugs for fighting viral infections and specifically for destroying cancerous growths, more effective diagnostic reagents, and, perhaps, the ability to replace damaged or lacking genes within cells with healthy copies.
Organelles Nucleus, Mitochondria, ER, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes, Cytoskeleton, Plasma membrane About ½ the total volume of the cytoplasm Cytosol comprises water, ions, amino acids, nucleotides, proteins, glucose, ATP, etc.
Mitochondria Similar to bacteria in size and shape Contain their own mitochondrial DNA and making proteins They reproduce by dividing into two Contain the machinery for cellular respiration
ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) Consists of flattened sheets, sacs, and tubes of membranes throughout the cytoplasm Responsible for protein synthesis (RER) and lipid synthesis (SER)
Golgi apparatus A stack of flattened sacs Involved in the modification and transport of molecules
Lysosomes Contains enzymes required for intracellular digestion
Peroxisomes Membrane-bound organelles Hydrogen peroxide is generated and degraded
Cytoskeleton Gives the cell its shape, its capacity to move, and its ability to transport organelles and vescles from one part of the cell cytoplasm to another. –Microfilament (7-8 nm) –Intermediate (10 nm) –Microtubules (24nm) –Spectrin-based membrane skeleton