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PPL-10A Unit 1 – Substance Use and Abuse

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1 PPL-10A Unit 1 – Substance Use and Abuse
Descriptions of Drugs PPL-10A Unit 1 – Substance Use and Abuse

2 Alcohol The most commonly used drug and is actually a depressant that slows down the activity of the CNS. Made through the fermentation of fruits and/or grains.

3 Alcohol Short-Term Effects Person feels more relaxed.
Will not be able to think as clearly, and judgment and decision-making will be affected. Reflexes will become slower and will have trouble doing activities that require physical and mental co-ordination. May become angry or take more risks. If binge drinking, the breathing system may slow down or even stop, causing death.

4 Alcohol Long-Term Effects
A heavy drinker may develop inflamed stomach or pancreas, cirrhosis of the liver, certain cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, heart disease, high blood pressure, brain and nerve damage. The production of sex hormones will decrease in men. Prenatal exposure to alcohol can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) of Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Legal Status/Consequences The legal age to consume alcohol is 19. Legal controls regulate any sales, transportation, or purchasing of alcohol. Individuals face liability issues regarding home hosting and social hosting in other locations.

5 Cannabis Marijuana comes from the dried tops, leaves, stems and seeds of the cannabis plant. It is smoked in pipes or “joints”. Hashish is a dried, caked resinous substance found as soft or hard chunks. Hash oil is an oily extract, usually stored in small glass vials. Cannabis is the second most popular drug used by youth. The active drug is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Hash and hash oil are more concentrated than marijuana.

6 Cannabis Short-Term Effects
Get a “high feeling” and becomes more relaxed and talkative Pulse rate, heartbeat and blood pressure will rise Eyes may get red After a while, will become quiet and sleepy. Short-term memory, concentration, and ability to think clearly will be impaired. With larger doses, the person may feel that sounds and colours are sharper or distorted. Very large doses may cause confusion, restlessness, excitability, and may cause hallucinations. Can be used to control pain and nausea for medical ailments.

7 Cannabis Long-Term Effects Drug dependency
Loss of interest in activities Ability to learn new information is decreased Memory problems may develop May get infections more easily due to harm to immune system. May develop chronic bronchitis, throat cancer, heart attack, stroke, and blood pressure complications. Legal Status Buying, selling, using or possessing cannabis is illegal. Special permission can be given through the courts for use and possession for medical purposes.

8 Cocaine (Crack) Description
Powerful drug that stimulates the body’s central nervous system May be snorted, injected or converted to a free-base form that is smoked Cocaine is a fine white powder Crack is usually whitish-yellow chunks or “rocks”.

9 Cocaine (Crack) Short-Term Effects Appetite will decrease
More energy and will not get tired easily Feel more alert, but actually is not Breathing will speed up Heart rate and blood pressure will increase. Person is at a greater risk of stroke, heart attack and angina Pupils will be enlarged May act bizarre or violent May experience paranoid psychosis May experience a seizure (convulsion)

10 Cocaine (Crack) Long-Term Effects
If sniffed, nose tissues will be damaged May be undernourished May get infections more easily Highly addictive Tolerance can develop and more drug is needed to get the same affect There is a risk of HIV infection if injected May experience paranoid psychosis (may be irreversible) Legal Status Possession/buying, possession for trafficking, trafficking, production, importing and exporting are all illegal

11 Ecstasy Description Psychoactive drug with hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like effects Sold in tablet, powder, or gelatin capsule form and is taken orally Tablets may be crushed and then snorted No approved medical use Produced through chemical synthesis, mostly in illicit labs

12 Ecstasy Short-Term Effects
In low to moderate doses, produces a mild intoxication, a strong sense of pleasure Increased sense of sociability or closeness with others, enhance communication skills, increased energy and confidence. Increase in sweating, blood pressure and heart rate, nausea, grinding of teeth, jaw pain, anxiety or panic attacks, blurred vision, vomiting, insomnia, paranoia and convulsions. Potential for strong negative effects and psychiatric complications that may last for days or weeks.

13 Ecstasy Additional Effects
Interferes with the body’s ability to regulate temperature There have been several fatal incidents associated with ecstasy use. Deaths occur from kidney or cardiovascular failure induced by a very high body temperature and dehydration.

14 Ecstasy Long-Term Effects
Some seritonin nerve damage, causing memory and learning problems. There are reports of weight loss, confusion, irritability, depression, paranoia, psychosis and exhaustion. Jaundice and liver damage have been reported. Legal Status It is a controlled substance and is prohibited for sale in Canada.

15 GHB (Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate)
Description Produced naturally in the human body in small amounts. Taken by choice to heighten sensuality and tactile responses. Can be extremely dangerous when taken in large amounts or taken in combination with alcohol and other drugs. It is available in liquid form, white powder or capsule.

16 GHB Short-Term Effects
Central nervous system depressant, slowing down breathing and heart rate and makes the user sleepy. It is easy to take too much or overdose. Too much may cause nausea and vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, amnesia and vertigo. May cause a deep coma-like sleep; they may vomit while asleep and choke. Overdose can result in depressed breathing, a lowered heart rate, loss of consciousness, seizures, coma and even death.

17 GHB Long-Term Effects Long term effects are unknown at this time.
Regular use of GHB can cause physical dependence. Abrupt stopping can result in anxiety, tremors, inability to sleep and other unpleasant, potentially dangerous side effects, including paranoia with hallucination and high blood pressure. Legal Status It is not legally available in Canada. Buying, selling, using or possessing is illegal.

18 Ketamine Description Fast-acting anesthetic and painkiller used primarily in veterinary surgery. Has been used to incapacitate unsuspecting victims to prevent them resisting sexual assault. Usually comes in liquid form, but it is also found as a white powder or pill. The liquid is added to drinks or injected into a muscle. The powder is mixed into drinks or snorted or smoked with marijuana or tobacco.

19 Ketamine Short-Term Effects
Effects usually felt between 1 and 10 minutes after taking the drug. Effects depend on how much is taken. Prevents the user from feeling pain and may cause vomiting. In low doses, user may feel sleepy, distracted, withdrawn, confused and have a distorted perception of time and body. At higher doses, it slows down the beating of the heart, meaning less oxygen gets to the brain and muscles. Unconsciousness and even death may occur. Tolerance grows with regular use.

20 Ketamine Long-Term Effects Unknown at this time. Legal Status
Ketamine is only available to veterinarians and doctors for medical use. If ketamine is stolen or diverted, it can be illegally sold on the street or in clubs for recreational use. Buying, selling, using or possessing it for recreational use is illegal.

21 Opiates (Opioids, Narcotis)
Description Include natural substances, such as drugs from the opium poppy, and opiate-related synthetic drugs such as meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (Oxycontin), codeine and methadone. Technically, the term opiates should be used only referring to drugs of natural origin. This family of drugs is frequently referred to as narcotic analgesics or narcotics and is used medically for the relief of pain.

22 Opiates Short-Term Effects
The higher centres of the brain get briefly stimulated but then the central nervous system gets depressed. An initial surge of pleasure or a rush. Restlessness, nausea, vomiting and dry mouth may develop. There is a warm feeling in the body and extremities will feel heavy. User will go “on the nod” – a state where the user is in and out of consciousness. Breathing slows. Pupils contract to pinpoints. Skin is cold, moist and bluish. Profound respiratory depression can result in death. Potential for overdose is high.

23 Opiates Long-Term Effects
Under medical supervision, there is little risk of addiction. Chronic (ab)use of opioids can lead to psychological and physical dependence. May experience infections from unsterilized needles, including infections of the heart lining and valves, HIV and AIDS, abscesses, cellulitis, liver disease and brain damage, depressed respiration in overdose, dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Legal Status Some opiates can be used legally in Canada under the supervision of a qualified physician. Illicit opioids and the misuse of prescription opiates are illegal in Canada.

24 Rohypnol Description Is the brand name of flunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine medication with sedative effects Can be secretly given to an individual to make that person less able to resist sexual assault. May be taken by choice to heighten sensual and tactile responses. Since 1999 tablets have been made so that they dissolve slower in liquid, turning clear drinks bright blue and darker drinks murky, making the drug much easier to detect. When mixed with alcohol or other drugs, effects are increased and can be fatal.

25 Rohypnol Short-Term Effects
Depending on amount taken, may feel relaxed and calm, to drowsy and clumsy, to unconscious. May appear “drunk”, having reduced inhibition and judgement, slurred speech, weakness and staggering, dizziness, confusion and severe drowsiness. Lack of memory, periods of blackout from 8-24 hours. Sedation begins in about 30 minutes, peaks within 2 hours and lasts for about 8 hours.

26 Rohypnol Long-Term Effects Long-term use can cause dependence.
A withdrawal syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation. Legal Status It is not legally available in Canada. It is illegal to possess, traffic, import or produce Rohypnol.

27 Solvents and Aerosols/ Inhalants
Description Were never intended to be used as drugs. Manufactured by the chemical industry. Products such as gasoline, shoe polish, paint removers, model airplane glue, nail polish remover, spray deodorants, hairsprays and insecticides. There are hundreds of products that contain solvents and aerosols.

28 Solvents and Aerosols Short-Term Effects
Feelings of euphoria occur; lightheadedness, exhilaration and vivid fantasies. Nausea and drooling can develop. Sneezing and coughing can occur. Loss of muscular co-ordination. Reflexes are slow. Sensitive to light. Death from suffocation or heart failure and permanent brain damage could occur with one use.

29 Solvents and Aerosols Long-Term Effects
Pallor, thirst, weight loss, nosebleeds, bloodshot eyes and sores on the nose and mouth occur. Interference with the formation of blood cells in bone marrow. Liver and kidney function is impaired. Mental confusion and fatigue may occur. Depression, irritability hostility, paranoia may occur. Mental function is severely impaired due to brain damage. Lack of motor co-ordination and tremors may develop. Lead poisoning may develop. Legal Status The possession or use of solvents and aerosols is not prohibited under federal or provincial law.


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