Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 - Altered States of Consciousness"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 7 - Altered States of Consciousness Lesson Objectives:1. Describe the research related to sleep and dreaming2. Define hypnosis and hallucinations3. Discuss effects of drug states and alcohol4. Describe research on biofeedback and meditation
2Section 1 Sleep and Dreams Objectives:-Describe the research related to sleep and dreams-list and discuss sleep disorders
4Altered State of Consciousness Involves a change in mental processesStudies began in 1960’s by having people sleep, meditate, undergo hypnosis, and take drugsIn a lab, they observe changes such as breathing rate, body temp and brain activitybrain activity is measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG)
5SleepIs a state of altered consciousness with different patterns of brain activityvery difficult to studyhelped by the EEG, researchers discovered 2 types of sleep patterns:quiet sleep (stages 1-4)active sleep (REM or stage 5)
6Sleep Twilight State: When you begin to fall asleep: temperature drops pulse dropsbreathing slowsbrain emits alpha waves (shows absence of concentrated thought)
7Stage I Sleep Pulse continues to slow Muscles relax May trigger a reflex muscle twitch called a hypnic jerkBreathing becomes uneven and brain waves are irregularAlpha and Theta wavesIf woken in this stage, you will most likely say you were, “just dozing”Lasts about 10 minutes
8Stage II Sleep Eyes roll from side to side EEG shows sleep spindles – distinctive bursts of brain activity that indicate a person is asleep.Spindles seem to mark the true boundary of sleepWithin 4 minutes after spindles appear, most people will say they were asleepPeaks of brain waves become higherLasts up to 30 minutes
9Stage III Sleep Known as delta sleep or deep sleep EEG shows amplitude delta waves (very slow brain waves)
10Stage IV Sleep Most people reach this stage after 1 hour Difficult to wake up sleeperBrain waves are almost pure delta waves50 % of time sleep is in stage 4State of oblivionIf woken up you are very confused and disorientedSleep walking, sleep talking and bedwetting can occur during this stageImportant to physical well beingthis is where your body gets its rest1 1/2 hours a night
12Sleep 75% of sleep time is in Stages 1-4 25% of sleep time is in REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)
13REM SLEEP Characterized by rapid eye movement Pulse and breathing are irregularAdrenal and sex hormones rise in the bloodFace and fingers start to twitchMuscles in arms and legs feel paralyzedThis prevents some hilarious and DANGEROUS nighttime escapades.REM Behavior Disorder – the paralysis does not happen and the sleeper can leap out of bed, thrash violently and possibly attack their bed partnerREM sleep is also called active sleepStage 1-4 are NREM (non-rem)
14REM Sleep (CONT) Almost all dreaming takes place in REM sleep last about 10 minutes longcycles every 90 minutes or soas stage IV decreases, length of REM sleep increases until you wake up
15How much sleep do you need? Varies from person to person based on age, but the averages are:newborns: hours a day (half in REM)16 years old: hoursGrad School (age 25ish): 8 hours70 years old: 5 hours
16Sleep Disorders Nightmares and Night Terrors – Nightmares – occur during the dream phase of REM sleepNight terrors - occur during Stage IVA person suffers total panic and may hallucinate frightening dream images into the bedroomMost common in early childhood, but they can continue to plague about 2 in every 100 adults.
17People seem to have an internal biological clock that regulates the sleep-wakefulness cycle. Blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, secretion of hormones and digestive enzymes, sensory sharpness, and elimination processes all follow circadian rhythms.A circadian rhythm is a biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses within a time period of 24 or 25 hours.They operate even when the normal day and night cues are moved.
18Sleep DisordersInsomnia – a prolonged and usually abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep.Has many causes and takes many formsSome people cannot sleep because of anxiety or depressionOveruse of drugs or alcohol can also cause insomnia
19Sleep DisordersSleep Apnea – causes frequent interruptions of breathing during the nightOne of the common symptoms is a special kind of snoring that may occur hundreds of times a nightA blockage of the breathing passages actually causes the snoringDuring this time, the victim is in fact chokingThe flow of air to the lungs stopsSleep Apnea affects 1 in 100 AmericansPeople who have this may feel listless, sleepy, and irritable during the daySleep apnea is usually caused by a physical problem that blocks the airway such as enlarged tonsils, repeated infections in the middle ear or throat, or obesity
20Sleep DisordersNarcolepsy – characterized by a permanent and overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue.Other symptoms include unusual sleep and dream patternsThese people have sleep attacks during the dayAccompanied by brief periods of REM sleepThese people may have difficulties in areas of work, leisure, and interpersonal relations.
22Section 2 – Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation Objectives:Determine how hypnosis relates to consciousnessDescribe research into such techniques as biofeedback and meditation.
23HypnosisA form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible and do not use their critical thinking skillsBy allowing the hypnotist to guide and direct them, people can be made conscious of things they are usually unaware ofdoes not put the subject to sleepable to focus attention to one tiny aspect of reality and ignore all other imputs
24HypnosisOxygen consumption and EEG levels are different then someone who is sleepingOxygen consumption remains the same throughout a hypnotic sessionThe EEG shows brain waves of those of a person who is wide awake
25HypnosisNot everyone can be hypnotized, but, researchers believe 9 out of 10 people can be hypnotized to some degreeHypnosis has been used in therapy, medicine, and in the courtroomin legal cases, hypnosis is used to enhance memoryin most cases, courts have refused to admit evidence received from hypnosisHypnosis is sometime used to reduce painHypnotic analgesia refers to the reduction o pain reported by patients after they have undergone hypnosis.
26BiofeedbackInvolves learning to control you internal physiological processes with the help of feedback from these physiological statesbiofeedback has been used to teach people how to control a wide variety of physiological responses, including brain waves (EEG), heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature and sweat-gland activityBasic Principle: feedback makes learning possible
27BiofeedbackIt involves using machines to tell people about very subtle, moment to moment changes in the bodyBiofeedback has been used by doctors to treat ailments such as high blood pressure, migraine headaches and tension headaches
28MeditationFocusing attention on an image or thought with the goal of clearing one’s minds and producing an “inner peace”Studies done in 1975 on meditation revealed that regular practice of meditation was physically relaxing but also led to changes in behavior such as decreased drug use.Herbert Benson’s book, Relaxation Response, suggest that all forms of meditation lead to just that, a relaxation response which is more distinct than more casual states of relaxation
29MeditationMeditation has been practiced in various parts of the world for thousands of years.Three major approaches to mediationTranscendental meditation – involves the mental repetition of a mantra, usually a Sanskrit phraseMindfulness meditation – developed from a Buddhist tradition, focuses on the present moment.They move there focus from the tips of their toes to their head.Breath meditation – concentrating on one’s respiration – the process of inhaling and exhaling.
30MeditationMost researchers believe there is a benefit to systematic relaxation.It has been found to help lower blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate.
31Section 3 Drugs and Consciousness Objectives:-Describe the effects drugs have on consciousness-Define drug abuse
32Psychoactive Drugs Interact with the central nervous system alter mood, perception and behaviorschanges the chemistry of the brainex: caffeine, marijuana, alcohol and amphetamines and LSD
33Hallucinations Perceptions that have no direct external cause seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or feelings things that aren’t thereinvolve color
34Hallucinations What can produce hallucinations? Hypnosis meditation drugswithdrawal from drugssleep deprivationdreams
35Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana: use increased during the 60’s and 70’s active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)complex molecule that naturally occurs in three varieties of hemp (cannabis)usually smoked or can be ingested
36Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..) appears to heighten most sensory experiencesobjects are more distinctcolors take on a subtle shadingdrawings or photographs may seem 3-dmusical notes sound purerfood tastes better
37Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..) it heighten unpleasant events if user is already frightened or depressed, marijuana intensifies feelingscan cause acute anxiety, accompanied by paranoid thoughts and feelings of dyinginterferes with memoryunable to recall certain informationpatterns resembles affects of Alzheimer's Disease
38Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont...) affects the lungs has 50% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than cigarettescauses lung cancerattacks the body’s immune system, makes a user more susceptible to infectionloss of ambition
39Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..) can bring on psychological disturbances in people who already unstable or people who have psychological disorders in their familyheavy use impairs the hormone testosterone in males and lowers sperm counts
40Hallucinogens Produce hallucinations, also called psychedelic one out of every ten Americans older than twelve has taken a hallucinogen at least oncesynthetic hallucinogens include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP)
41HallucinogensPCP (a.k.a. angel dust) may be taken by mouth , smoked w. marijuana, snorted or injectedit can produce stupor, coma or even death depending on the dose
42Hallucinogens LSD: one of the most powerful drugs known 4,000 times stronger than mescalinethe user embarks on a trip lasting from 6 to 14 hoursduring a trip mood can change drasticallyhallucinations are commonperception may be distorted that familiar objects are unrecognizable
43Hallucinogens LSD (cont..) time is distorted impairs thinking, causes panic reactionscan be terrifyingwhen panic is severe, medical attention is needed
44DepressantsRetard the action of the central nervous system, so the neurons fire more slowlyproduce intoxication and euphoriadecrease alertness and motor coordinationslurred speech, unsteadiness and unconsciousness
45Alcohol Alcohol is a depressant, NOT a stimulant most widely used and abusedimmediate affect is loosening of your inhibitionsslurred speech, blurred vision and impaired judgementcan have permanent damage on your brain and liver
46AlcoholAlcohol affects memory impairing the ability to process and store new informationchronic or heavy use of alcohol can lead to alcoholismchronic alcoholic have memory blackouts: after they sober they cannot remember what happened during the intoxication