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Chapter 7 - Altered States of Consciousness

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1 Chapter 7 - Altered States of Consciousness
Lesson Objectives: 1. Describe the research related to sleep and dreaming 2. Define hypnosis and hallucinations 3. Discuss effects of drug states and alcohol 4. Describe research on biofeedback and meditation

2 Section 1 Sleep and Dreams
Objectives: -Describe the research related to sleep and dreams -list and discuss sleep disorders

3

4 Altered State of Consciousness
Involves a change in mental processes Studies began in 1960’s by having people sleep, meditate, undergo hypnosis, and take drugs In a lab, they observe changes such as breathing rate, body temp and brain activity brain activity is measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG)

5 Sleep Is a state of altered consciousness with different patterns of brain activity very difficult to study helped by the EEG, researchers discovered 2 types of sleep patterns: quiet sleep (stages 1-4) active sleep (REM or stage 5)

6 Sleep Twilight State: When you begin to fall asleep: temperature drops
pulse drops breathing slows brain emits alpha waves (shows absence of concentrated thought)

7 Stage I Sleep Pulse continues to slow Muscles relax
May trigger a reflex muscle twitch called a hypnic jerk Breathing becomes uneven and brain waves are irregular Alpha and Theta waves If woken in this stage, you will most likely say you were, “just dozing” Lasts about 10 minutes

8 Stage II Sleep Eyes roll from side to side
EEG shows sleep spindles – distinctive bursts of brain activity that indicate a person is asleep. Spindles seem to mark the true boundary of sleep Within 4 minutes after spindles appear, most people will say they were asleep Peaks of brain waves become higher Lasts up to 30 minutes

9 Stage III Sleep Known as delta sleep or deep sleep
EEG shows amplitude delta waves (very slow brain waves)

10 Stage IV Sleep Most people reach this stage after 1 hour
Difficult to wake up sleeper Brain waves are almost pure delta waves 50 % of time sleep is in stage 4 State of oblivion If woken up you are very confused and disoriented Sleep walking, sleep talking and bedwetting can occur during this stage Important to physical well being this is where your body gets its rest 1 1/2 hours a night

11 EEG Sleep Stages

12 Sleep 75% of sleep time is in Stages 1-4
25% of sleep time is in REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement)

13 REM SLEEP Characterized by rapid eye movement
Pulse and breathing are irregular Adrenal and sex hormones rise in the blood Face and fingers start to twitch Muscles in arms and legs feel paralyzed This prevents some hilarious and DANGEROUS nighttime escapades. REM Behavior Disorder – the paralysis does not happen and the sleeper can leap out of bed, thrash violently and possibly attack their bed partner REM sleep is also called active sleep Stage 1-4 are NREM (non-rem)

14 REM Sleep (CONT) Almost all dreaming takes place in REM sleep
last about 10 minutes long cycles every 90 minutes or so as stage IV decreases, length of REM sleep increases until you wake up

15 How much sleep do you need?
Varies from person to person based on age, but the averages are: newborns: hours a day (half in REM) 16 years old: hours Grad School (age 25ish): 8 hours 70 years old: 5 hours

16 Sleep Disorders Nightmares and Night Terrors –
Nightmares – occur during the dream phase of REM sleep Night terrors - occur during Stage IV A person suffers total panic and may hallucinate frightening dream images into the bedroom Most common in early childhood, but they can continue to plague about 2 in every 100 adults.

17 People seem to have an internal biological clock that regulates the sleep-wakefulness cycle.
Blood pressure, heart rate, appetite, secretion of hormones and digestive enzymes, sensory sharpness, and elimination processes all follow circadian rhythms. A circadian rhythm is a biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses within a time period of 24 or 25 hours. They operate even when the normal day and night cues are moved.

18 Sleep Disorders Insomnia – a prolonged and usually abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep. Has many causes and takes many forms Some people cannot sleep because of anxiety or depression Overuse of drugs or alcohol can also cause insomnia

19 Sleep Disorders Sleep Apnea – causes frequent interruptions of breathing during the night One of the common symptoms is a special kind of snoring that may occur hundreds of times a night A blockage of the breathing passages actually causes the snoring During this time, the victim is in fact choking The flow of air to the lungs stops Sleep Apnea affects 1 in 100 Americans People who have this may feel listless, sleepy, and irritable during the day Sleep apnea is usually caused by a physical problem that blocks the airway such as enlarged tonsils, repeated infections in the middle ear or throat, or obesity

20 Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy – characterized by a permanent and overwhelming feeling of sleepiness and fatigue. Other symptoms include unusual sleep and dream patterns These people have sleep attacks during the day Accompanied by brief periods of REM sleep These people may have difficulties in areas of work, leisure, and interpersonal relations.

21 Sleep Disorders

22 Section 2 – Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation
Objectives: Determine how hypnosis relates to consciousness Describe research into such techniques as biofeedback and meditation.

23 Hypnosis A form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible and do not use their critical thinking skills By allowing the hypnotist to guide and direct them, people can be made conscious of things they are usually unaware of does not put the subject to sleep able to focus attention to one tiny aspect of reality and ignore all other imputs

24 Hypnosis Oxygen consumption and EEG levels are different then someone who is sleeping Oxygen consumption remains the same throughout a hypnotic session The EEG shows brain waves of those of a person who is wide awake

25 Hypnosis Not everyone can be hypnotized, but, researchers believe 9 out of 10 people can be hypnotized to some degree Hypnosis has been used in therapy, medicine, and in the courtroom in legal cases, hypnosis is used to enhance memory in most cases, courts have refused to admit evidence received from hypnosis Hypnosis is sometime used to reduce pain Hypnotic analgesia refers to the reduction o pain reported by patients after they have undergone hypnosis.

26 Biofeedback Involves learning to control you internal physiological processes with the help of feedback from these physiological states biofeedback has been used to teach people how to control a wide variety of physiological responses, including brain waves (EEG), heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature and sweat-gland activity Basic Principle: feedback makes learning possible

27 Biofeedback It involves using machines to tell people about very subtle, moment to moment changes in the body Biofeedback has been used by doctors to treat ailments such as high blood pressure, migraine headaches and tension headaches

28 Meditation Focusing attention on an image or thought with the goal of clearing one’s minds and producing an “inner peace” Studies done in 1975 on meditation revealed that regular practice of meditation was physically relaxing but also led to changes in behavior such as decreased drug use. Herbert Benson’s book, Relaxation Response, suggest that all forms of meditation lead to just that, a relaxation response which is more distinct than more casual states of relaxation

29 Meditation Meditation has been practiced in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Three major approaches to mediation Transcendental meditation – involves the mental repetition of a mantra, usually a Sanskrit phrase Mindfulness meditation – developed from a Buddhist tradition, focuses on the present moment. They move there focus from the tips of their toes to their head. Breath meditation – concentrating on one’s respiration – the process of inhaling and exhaling.

30 Meditation Most researchers believe there is a benefit to systematic relaxation. It has been found to help lower blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate.

31 Section 3 Drugs and Consciousness
Objectives: -Describe the effects drugs have on consciousness -Define drug abuse

32 Psychoactive Drugs Interact with the central nervous system
alter mood, perception and behaviors changes the chemistry of the brain ex: caffeine, marijuana, alcohol and amphetamines and LSD

33 Hallucinations Perceptions that have no direct external cause
seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or feelings things that aren’t there involve color

34 Hallucinations What can produce hallucinations? Hypnosis meditation
drugs withdrawal from drugs sleep deprivation dreams

35 Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana: use increased during the 60’s and 70’s
active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) complex molecule that naturally occurs in three varieties of hemp (cannabis) usually smoked or can be ingested

36 Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..)
appears to heighten most sensory experiences objects are more distinct colors take on a subtle shading drawings or photographs may seem 3-d musical notes sound purer food tastes better

37 Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..) it heighten unpleasant events
if user is already frightened or depressed, marijuana intensifies feelings can cause acute anxiety, accompanied by paranoid thoughts and feelings of dying interferes with memory unable to recall certain information patterns resembles affects of Alzheimer's Disease

38 Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont...) affects the lungs
has 50% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than cigarettes causes lung cancer attacks the body’s immune system, makes a user more susceptible to infection loss of ambition

39 Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana (cont..)
can bring on psychological disturbances in people who already unstable or people who have psychological disorders in their family heavy use impairs the hormone testosterone in males and lowers sperm counts

40 Hallucinogens Produce hallucinations, also called psychedelic
one out of every ten Americans older than twelve has taken a hallucinogen at least once synthetic hallucinogens include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP)

41 Hallucinogens PCP (a.k.a. angel dust) may be taken by mouth , smoked w. marijuana, snorted or injected it can produce stupor, coma or even death depending on the dose

42 Hallucinogens LSD: one of the most powerful drugs known
4,000 times stronger than mescaline the user embarks on a trip lasting from 6 to 14 hours during a trip mood can change drastically hallucinations are common perception may be distorted that familiar objects are unrecognizable

43 Hallucinogens LSD (cont..) time is distorted
impairs thinking, causes panic reactions can be terrifying when panic is severe, medical attention is needed

44 Depressants Retard the action of the central nervous system, so the neurons fire more slowly produce intoxication and euphoria decrease alertness and motor coordination slurred speech, unsteadiness and unconsciousness

45 Alcohol Alcohol is a depressant, NOT a stimulant
most widely used and abused immediate affect is loosening of your inhibitions slurred speech, blurred vision and impaired judgement can have permanent damage on your brain and liver

46 Alcohol Alcohol affects memory impairing the ability to process and store new information chronic or heavy use of alcohol can lead to alcoholism chronic alcoholic have memory blackouts: after they sober they cannot remember what happened during the intoxication


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