Presentation on theme: "MIS 650: Theory1 MIS 650 Writing Research Papers I: Theory (Getting an Idea)"— Presentation transcript:
MIS 650: Theory1 MIS 650 Writing Research Papers I: Theory (Getting an Idea)
MIS 650: Theory2 Why Write a Research Paper v To TEACH what is known v To HIGHLIGHT the need to know more v To GENERATE new thought v To INTEGRATE your thought into existing thought v To DEMONSTRATE the truth of your thinking vTo INSTIGATE new inquiry
MIS 650: Theory3 Forms of Research Paper ) Formal published article in scholarly or professional journal ) Paper delivered at scholarly or professional conference ) Technical report to working group (business or professional) ) Journalistic article for (general) public ) Dissertation/Thesis/Research Report/ Technical Report
MIS 650: Theory4 Types of Research Paper N Critical Review of Thought N Expose of Bad Practice N (Re) Analysis of the Situation N Research Report, pointing out new facts, seeking opportunities
MIS 650: Theory5 Pragmatics of IS Research Consult Strategic Plan (Strategy, Planning) Generate the Question (Marketing) Find a Sponsor (Marketing, Finance) Settle Ethical Questions, Obtain Approval (Policy) Write one or more Proposals (Comm’n) Research the Literature (Operations) Refine the Question (Marketing, Policy)
MIS 650: Theory6 Pragmatics of IS Research (cont’d.) Research the Real World (Operations) Analyse the Results (Operations) Document the Results (Communication) Draw Conclusions (Operations) Submit for Publication (Sales) Account for Resource use (Accounting) Celebrate or cringe (PR)
MIS 650: Theory7 Generating a Topic Unsystematically Systematically For a Funder/Audience To Complete/Round out a Resume What Will Sell Current Hot Topics The Need for a Stable Phenomenon The Need to Hold Your Interest
MIS 650: Theory8 CURRENT HOT TOPICS TECHNOLOGY IT MANAGEMENT COMMERCE Methods Internet, Web Client-Server GroupWare IT Staff Retention CIO, IT Governance IT Practices, Success Project Management Outsourcing BPR & friends Electronic Commerce “Alignment” Technology Adoption Global IS Network Paradigms Methodological Issues: Interpretivistism, Qualitative Methods, Ethics
MIS 650: Theory9 Users of the Research Paper Research Paper IS Prof Other Researchers IS Practitioners Other IS Students General Public IS Instructors IS Practitioners Exter- nal Reader
MIS 650: Theory10 Uses of the Research Paper Extend the “frontiers” of knowledge Point out commercial opportunities Meet the needs of academic task, goal Foment revolution, change Market ideas to a limited group Sound the alarm, call to action “Hidden Agendas” (career, politics, etc.)
MIS 650: Theory11 How Your Paper Will Be Judged | Innovativeness, contribution to theory | Completeness of background research | Relevance to perceived current challenges | Clarity, succinctness, appeal, structure | Mechanical production or delivery | Persuasiveness, face validity | Applicability of results | Political correctness, unfortunately
MIS 650: Theory12 Structure of the Research Paper 0 Chapter 1: Theory 0 Chapter 2: Literature Review 0 Chapter 3: Methodology 0 Chapter 4: Data Collection 0 Chapter 5: Analysis and Results 0 Chapter 6: Conclusions
MIS 650: Theory13 Chapter 1: Theory Chapter Outline N1.1 Context, History N1.2 Your Research TOPIC N1.3 Contending Theories (if any) N1.4 Necessity for Research N1.5 Value of Research N1.6 The Research Hypotheses N1.7 Overview of Rest of Paper
MIS 650: Theory Context/History WHEN: The history of the research area: What has happened in the real world? What has happened in the world of ideas? WHERE: Context WHO is interested? WHY? WHAT are the stakes and stakeholders HOW: Method Why is this new approach called for?
MIS 650: Theory Your Research Topic succinctly vividly State your research topic as succinctly but as vividly as possible: “The role that culture plays in the perceptions of participants in electronic, computer-supported meetings (EMS)” Note action-oriented kernal: “…plays…” Note focus/locus “culture”, “EMS” In IS, there must be a technology locus
MIS 650: Theory Contending Theories Existing Theory Contending Theory Phenomenon of Interest Unrelated Implications Possibly yours!
MIS 650: Theory17 Example: Deindividuation L Current theory says creativity in meetings due to “deindividuation”, participant losing inhibitions by being “immersed in group” L Deindividuation can explain both good and bad behaviour, but little bad happens, and cannot explain free riding L New theory (“orienting”) shows how people are creative while probing constraint
MIS 650: Theory18 Example: IT and Knowledge Creation L KC requires certain enabling conditions L IT can affect KC in three ways: L IT can (1) create enabling conditions, (2) affect how E.C.s facilitate K.C. and (3) directly generate knowledge. Info Tech’y Enabl’g Cond’ns Knowl. Creation 1a1b 2 3 Variety, Autonomy, Creative Chaos, etc.
MIS 650: Theory Necessity for Research: Possible reasons Situation is instance of more general phenomenon regarding technology Commercial interest Potential for wasting lots of business resources People need help with technology Technology is going the wrong direction
MIS 650: Theory Value of Research: Possible Criteria Refers to previous sections on WHAT, WHO, WHY, and HOW Demonstrates that research is worth doing Convinces that paper is worth reading
MIS 650: Theory21 Example: GSS and Culture Because existing theories don’t explain anomalous (unexpected and inconsistent) results very well, these theories need improvement. Also, such systems are now more widely marketed to non- American groups. In addition, there have been many examples of partial implementation and huge expense. We suspect that corporate or national culture is a strong influence on the value of GSS. The new theory shows how culture influences users’ perceptions and evaluations.
MIS 650: Theory The Research Hypotheses Are predictions from theory that can be tested. THEY MUST BE TESTABLE < Generally are phrased in “abstract” terms but can be related to real-world phenomena < If hypotheses are shown to be false, then the underlying theory must have something false in it
MIS 650: Theory23 Two Research Approaches: Positivism Phenomenology Seeks prediction and control Reduces world to atoms Stresses observation Concerned with objectivity “Scientific” Seeks understanding and debate Treats world as a whole within context Stresses experience Concerned with subjectivity “Experiential”
MIS 650: Theory24 A Brief Journey to Positivismland Independence of Observer Free of values; objectivity is goal Seeks to explain causes Hypothetico-Deductive (theory tested by observation) Operationalisation is key Reductionist Seeks Generalisations Cross-sectional
MIS 650: Theory25 Hypothetico-Deductive Method Theory Describing the Real World Testable Hypotheses Real-World Observations Real-World Test Theory makes predictions that are implications Hypotheses are operationalised into real-world test of predictions Real-world test of predictions is carried out Theory is revised after results of testing. If theory is supported, it need not be revised, however. Theory comes from researcher’s imagination Working / Research
MIS 650: Theory26 Example: GSS and Culture Working Hypotheses W 1 : “Orienting decreases with time” W 2 : “New cultural situations heighten need to orient” W 3 : “New situations heighten sense of self- awareness and thus reduce perceived sense of anonymity” Note Generality Note abstract Terminology
MIS 650: Theory27 Example: GSS and Culture Research Hypotheses H 1 : Participants (Ps) generate more orienting-type comments in early stages of meeting than later stages H 2 : Ps generate more orienting-type comments in a transcultural setting than in a unicultural setting H 3 : Ps have a higher sense of self- awareness in transcultural settings than...
MIS 650: Theory Overview of Rest of the Research Paper Mention each chapter Highlight main point of each chapter If not as expected (I.e., this outline), explain why you must deviate from expected Point out any unusual things the reader must watch out for Acknowledgements can be put here or in separate section at front of paper
MIS 650: Theory29 Theory Development Worksheet Complete the attached worksheet Develop a formalised set of theoretical ideas Write a short article on the ideas
MIS 650: Theory30 Describe a phenomenon that is of interest to you Why is this interesting? What else would you like to know about this phenomenon? Page 3 Page 2 Page 1
MIS 650: Theory31 What are the important concepts to this phenomenon? How do you think they are related? What about them causes this relationship? Page 1 Page 3 Page 2
MIS 650: Theory32 What other reasons could there be for this phenomenon to occur the way it does? How would you say these reasons differ from one another? How would you go about demonstrating which reason is the best one? Page 2 Page 1 Page 3
MIS 650: Theory33 Describe a phenomenon that is of interest to you Why is this interesting? What else would you like to know about this phenomenon?
MIS 650: Theory34 What are the important concepts to this phenomenon? How do you think they are related? What about them causes this relationship?
MIS 650: Theory35 What other reasons could there be for this phenomenon to occur the way it does? How would you say these reasons differ from one another? How would you go about demonstrating which reason is the best one?