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Module 8 Hypnosis.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 8 Hypnosis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 8 Hypnosis

2 HYPNOSIS Hypnosis definition
procedure in which a researcher, clinician, or hypnotists suggests that a person will experience changes in sensation, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors Who can be hypnotized? not correlated with introversion, extraversion, social position, intelligence, willpower, sex, compliance, gullibility, being highly motivated, or being a placebo responder

3 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) Who is susceptible?
individuals with the remarkable ability to respond to imaginative suggestions best known test: Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale asks individuals to carry out a series of both simple and complex suggestions high scorers are usually easily hypnotized

4 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) How is someone hypnotized? hypnotic induction
refers to inducing hypnosis by first asking a person to either stare at an object or close his or her eyes and then suggesting that the person is becoming very relaxed

5 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) Theories of hypnosis
Altered States Theory of Hypnosis holds that hypnosis puts a person into an altered state of consciousness, during which the person is disconnected from reality, which results in being able to experience and respond to various suggestions Sociocognitive Theory of hypnosis behaviors observed during hypnosis result not from being hypnotized, but rather from having the special ability of responding to imaginative suggestions and social pressures

6 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) Behaviors Hypnotic analgesia
refers to a reduction in pain reported by clients after they had undergone hypnosis and received suggestions that reduced their anxiety and promoted relaxation Posthypnotic suggestion given to the subject during hypnosis about performing a particular behavior to a specific cue when the subject comes out of hypnosis

7 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) Behaviors Posthypnotic amnesia
not remembering what happened during hypnosis if the hypnotist suggested that, upon awakening, the person would forget what took place during hypnosis Age regression refers to subjects under hypnosis being asked to regress, or return in time, to an earlier age, such as early childhood Imagined perception refers to experiencing sensations, perceiving stimuli, or performing behaviors that come from one’s imagination

8 HYPNOSIS (CONT.) Medical and therapeutic applications
Medical and dental use used to reduce pain through hypnotic analgesia, to reduce fear and anxiety by helping individuals relax, or to help patients deal with a terminal disease by motivating them to make the best of a difficult situation Therapeutic and behavioral uses useful in helping clients reveal their personalities, gain insights into their lives, and arrive at solutions to their problems

9 DRUGS: OVERVIEW Reasons for use
include obtaining pleasure, joy, and euphoria; meeting social expectations; giving in to peer pressure; dealing with or escaping stress, anxiety, and tension; avoiding pain; and achieving altered state of consciousness Psychoactive drugs affect nervous system may alter consciousness and awareness, influence how we sense and perceive things, and modify our moods, feelings, emotions, and thoughts

Definition of terms Addiction a person has developed a behavioral pattern of drug abuse that is marked by an overwhelming and compulsive desire to obtain and use the drug; even after stopping, the person has a strong tendency to relapse and begin using the drug again Tolerance after a person uses a drug repeatedly over a period of time, the original dose of the drug no longer produces the desired effect so that a person must take increasingly larger doses of the drug to achieve the same behavioral effect

Definition of terms Dependency refers to a change in the nervous system so that a person now needs to take the drug to prevent the occurrence of painful withdrawal symptoms Withdrawal symptoms painful physical and psychological symptoms that occur after a drug-dependent person stops using the drug

Use of drugs

Effects on nervous system drugs affect neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters chemical keys that search for and then either open or close chemical locks to either excite or inhibit neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles Mimicking some drugs produce their effects by mimicking the way the neurotransmitters work Reuptake some drugs block reuptake

Effects on nervous system drugs affect brain’s reward/pleasure center includes the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area and involves dopamine some drugs directly activate the brain’s reward/pleasure center also activated when one eats food, has sex, and does other pleasurable activities

15 STIMULANTS Definition
stimulants, including cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, and nicotine, increase activity of the central nervous system and result in heightened alertness, arousal, euphoria, and decreased appetite and fatigue Amphetamines 1960’s: heavily prescribed to treat a wide range of problems, including fatigue, depression, and being overweight 1971: FDA outlawed the prescription of amphetamines for everything except attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy

16 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Amphetamines 1980’s: drug war on cocaine
dramatic increase in using a form of amphetamine called methamphetamine in many countries, possession or use of methamphetamine is illegal

17 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Amphetamines drug
Methamphetamine (D-methamphetamine) close to amphetamine in both chemical makeup and its physical and psychological effects can be smoked, or snorted produces almost instant high causes marked increase in blood pressure and heart rate produces feelings of enhanced mood, alertness, and energy

18 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Amphetamines nervous system
increases the release of dopamine and also blocks reuptake Dangers periods of restless activity and performing repetitive behaviors later, euphoria is replaced with depression, agitation insomnia, and development of true paranoid feelings

19 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Cocaine drug from coca leaves
cocaine can be sniffed or snorted absorbed by many of the body’s membranes concentrated cocaine is called crack effects are very similar to amphetamines higher doses can produce anxiety, emotional instability, and suspiciousness

20 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Cocaine nervous system blocks reuptake of dopamine
excites dopamine receptors to produce pleasure/euphoria and glutamate to produce cravings for more drug increased physiological and psychological arousal can be used for a local anesthetic when applied to external areas of the body

21 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Cocaine Dangers moderate doses
Short acting high (10-30 minutes); includes bursts of energy, arousal, and alertness Heavy doses results in serious physical and psychological problems, which may include hallucinations and feelings of bugs crawling under the skin as well as addiction

22 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Caffeine drug
mild stimulant, produces moderate physiological and psychological arousal, including decreased fatigue and drowsiness, feelings of alertness and improved reaction times Nervous system caffeine belongs to the chemical class called xanthines blocks certain receptors (adenosine receptors) in the brain mild physiological and psychological arousal

23 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Caffeine Dangers
mild to heavy doses of caffeine can result in addiction and dependency similar to those produced by alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine (two cups of coffee) higher doses result in depression, tension, and anxiety

24 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Nicotine drug
stimulant that triggers the brain’s reward/pleasure center to produce good feelings low doses improve attention, concentration, and short term memory regular use causes addiction and dependency leads to withdrawal

25 STIMULANTS (CONT.) Nicotine nervous system
stimulates the production of dopamine also stops other controlling cells from turning off the pleasure areas Dangers very addicting causes sexual problems including impotency withdrawal symptoms range in severity and include nervousness, irritability, difficulty in concentrating, sleep disturbances, and strong craving

26 OPIATES Opium, morphine, heroin opiates are classified as narcotics
drug opiates such as opium, morphine, and heroin produce three primary effects: analgesia (pain reduction) opiate euphoria (state between waking and sleeping) constipation

27 OPIATES (CONT.) Opium, morphine, heroin nervous system
brain has naturally occurring receptors for opiates produces feelings of euphoria and analgesia gastrointestinal tract has opiate receptors (constipation) brain also produces morphinelike chemicals called endorphins

28 OPIATES (CONT.) Opium, morphine, heroin Dangers
brain will produce less of it’s own endorphins relies on outside opiates person becomes addicted withdrawal symptoms, include hot and cold flashes, sweating, muscle tremors, and stomach cramps overdose results in depressed neural control for breathing and death from respiratory failure

Hallucinogens are psychoactive drugs that can produce strange and unusual perceptual, sensory, and cognitive experiences, which the person sees or hears but knows are not occurring in reality. LSD d-lysergic acid diethylamide drug produces hallucinogenic experiences at very low doses visual hallucinations, perceptual distortions, increased sensory awareness, and intense psychological feelings

30 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) LSD nervous system resembles serotonin
LSD binds to receptors that normally respond to serotonin, and the net effect is increased stimulation of the these neurons receptors are mainly located on neurons in the cerebral cortex involved in receiving sensations, creating perceptions, thinking, and imagining

psychological effects partially depend on the setting and the person’s state of mind if a person is tense or anxious or in an unfamiliar setting, he or she may experience a bad trip severe trips may lead to psychotic reactions (especially paranoid feelings) that require hospitalization users may experience flashbacks (after the experience) occur for no apparent reason

“magic mushrooms” (Psilocybe mexicana) possession or use of psilocybn is illegal drug psilocybin in low doses produces pleasant and relaxed feelings medium doses produce perceptual distortions in time and space high doses produce distortions in perceptions and body image and sometimes hallucinations

33 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Psilocybin nervous system
chemically related to LSD inhibits serotonin receptors hallucinatory effects last half as long as LSD

34 not physical harm to the brain or body
HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Psilocybin Dangers not physical harm to the brain or body potential for inducing psychotic states that may persist long after the experience is expected to end accidental poisonings are common from eating poisonous mushrooms, mistaking them for magic mushrooms

35 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Mescaline peyote cactus
contains about 30 psychoactive chemicals most potent is mescaline possession of mescaline is illegal for all except those who belong to the Native American Church drug 2,000 times less potent than LSD high doses: produce very clear and vivid visual hallucinations does not impair the intellect or cloud consciousness

36 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Mescaline nervous system
reaches maximum concentration in the brain about minutes after someone eats buttons of peyote cactus increases the activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine activates the sympathetic nervous system produces physiological arousal: increased heart rate, temperature, and sometimes vomiting

37 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Mescaline Dangers can last 6-8 hours
Users may experience headaches and vomiting

38 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Designer drugs
manufactured or synthetic drugs that are designed to resemble already existing illegal psychoactive drugs and produce or mimic their psychoactive effects drug MDMA, ecstasy resembles both mescaline and amphetamine heightens sensations, gives a euphoric rush, raises body temperature, and creates feelings of warmth and empathy

39 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Designer drugs MDMA nervous system
causes large amounts of dopamine and serotonin to be released afterward: users may feel depressed and have attention memory deficits MDMA may cause brain damage

40 HALLUCINOGENS (CONT.) Designer drugs MDMA Dangers
recreational trips can last 6 hours include: euphoria, high energy, jaw clenching, teeth grinding, increased body temperature, and insomnia higher doses include: panic, rapid heart beat, high body temperature, paranoia, and psychotic-like symptoms

41 ALCOHOL History and use
first brewery appeared in Egypt in about 3700 B.C. safe alcohol to drink is ethyl alcohol level of alcohol is measured in percentage in the blood: blood alcohol content or BAC national legal definition of being drunk is 0.08 (after possibly 3-4 drinks) effects the nervous system and results in behavioral and emotional changes

42 ALCOHOL (CONT.) drug ethyl alcohol is a psychoactive drug classified as a depressant depresses activity of the central nervous system alcohol seems like a stimulant but later depresses physiological and psychological responses

43 ALCOHOL (CONT.) Nervous system
affects many parts of the nervous system stimulates GABA neural receptors, leads to feeling less anxious and less inhibited also impairs the anterior cingulate cortex, monitors the control of motor actions drinkers fail to recognize their impaired motor performance (driving) high doses: depresses vital breathing reflexes in the medulla (brain stem) may lead to death

44 ALCOHOL (CONT.) Dangers hangover
includes upset stomach, dizziness, fatigue, headache, and depression repeated and heavy drinking can result in tolerance, addiction, and dependency withdrawal symptoms shaking, nausea, anxiety, diarrhea, hallucinations, and disorientation another serious problem, blackout occur after heavy and repeated drinking

45 ALCOHOL (CONT.) Dangers (cont.) blackouts
person seems to behave normally but does not remember what happened when sober repeated and heavy drinking can also result in liver damage, alcoholism, and brain damage

46 ALCOHOL (CONT.) Risk factors
of 109 million people who drink alcohol, 10 to 14 million will develop alcoholism psychological risk factors children of either one or both alcoholic parents can develop unusual, abnormal, or maladaptive psychological and emotional traits

47 ALCOHOL (CONT.) Risk factors genetic risk factors
refer to inherited biases for predispositions that increase the potential for alcoholism genetic factors contribute 50 to 60% to the reasons a person becomes an alcoholic

48 MARIJUANA Use and effects Most widely used illegal drug
medical marijuana can be effective in treating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, appetite loss in AIDS patients, eye disease (glaucoma), muscle spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis, and some forms of pain gateway effect says that using marijuana leads young people to try harder drugs

49 MARIJUANA (CONT.) drug psychoactive drug whose primary active ingredient is THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) found in leaves of the cannabis plant THC is rapidly absorbed by the lungs (while smoking) 5-10 minutes produces a hit that lasts for several hours depending on the user’s state of mind, marijuana can either heighten or distort pleasant or unpleasant experiences, moods, or feelings

50 MARIJUANA (CONT.) nervous system
THC receptors are located throughout the brain, including the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, limbic system, cerebellum, and basal ganglia the brain itself makes a chemical similar to THC anandamide currently under study

51 MARIJUANA (CONT.) Dangers
can cause temporary changes in cognitive functioning can temporarily decrease secretion of various hormones and effectiveness of the immune system respiratory problems like bronchitis and asthma high doses: may cause toxic psychoses, including delusions, paranoia, and feelings of terror

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