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Poetry Definitions, Classes, Terms, and “Casey at the Bat”

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Presentation on theme: "Poetry Definitions, Classes, Terms, and “Casey at the Bat”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Poetry Definitions, Classes, Terms, and “Casey at the Bat”

2 Definition Special kind of writing in which language, pictures, and sounds combine, creating a special emotional effect Written in units called “stanzas” More musical than prose writings (the effect of the language used) Subject matter is wide in range Poems can be about ANYTHING

3 Classes of Poetry Narrative – tells a story Has a plot and characters, BUT only focus one part of the story The selection and arrangement of these events make the poem unique. Has been popular for centuries beginning with the English ballads Lyrical – expresses personal thoughts, feelings, and/or emotions Short and musical

4 “Casey at the Bat” First Stanza – sets the scene of the poem. Fifth Stanza – lines 17 – 19 use exaggerated language The crowd’s cheering and its impact on the surrounding countryside Creates suspense and adds tone to the poem Tone is the attitude or feeling of the poem

5 “Casey at the Bat” (cont.) Fifth Stanza – lines contains parallelism to describe the sound and resonance of the crowd’s cheering; also builds suspense as Casey approaches the plate. Parallelism – the repeating of phrases or sentences so that the repeated parts are alike in structure or meaning. Can you identify the parallelism?

6 “Casey at the Bat” (cont.) Stanzas 6-8 – Casey’s pride is expressed through visual images and tone of voice. Stanza 9 – contains the use of simile to add an exaggerated description of the scene (line 34). Simile – a figure of speech that directly compares two seemingly unlike things using a comparison word such as “like” or “as” Stanza 10 – lines contain irony Irony – contrasts b/t reality and what seems to be real Casey is described as if he is a saint soothing angry hordes of people, which contrasts the previous descriptions of the larger than life, prideful hero.

7 “Casey at the Bat” (cont.) Stanza 10 – lines contain irony Irony – contrasts b/t reality and what seems to be real Casey is described as if he is a saint soothing angry hordes of people, which contrasts the previous descriptions of the larger than life, prideful hero. Stanzas – lines use elevated, philosophical language to heighten the drama of the situation The author’s change to the present tense in these stanzas increases the immediacy of the poem’s climax. Climax – the point of highest interest and greatest emotional involvement in a narrative.

8 LYRIC POETRY

9 Lyric Poetry Poetry in which the speaker reveals personal thoughts and feelings. Comes from the Greek word lyrikos, a short poem sung to the music of the lyre, a small harp-like instrument.

10 “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” Wordsworth describes his memory’s ability to change his “vacant” or “pensive” mood to pleasure (ll ). This is considered the main idea of the poem. He feels the seemingly trivial moment brought him great and unexpected “wealth” (l. 18). What are some examples of personification in this poem?

11 IMAGERY & FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

12 “Dreams” What are the two metaphors linked together in this poem that describe dreams? What do these metaphors imply about the necessity of dreams? What warning does Hughes issue in his poem about dreams?

13 “The Seven Ages of Man” Speaker – Jaques (a character from Shakespeare’s As You Like It) The poem is an example of an extended metaphor. What is the metaphor being extended throughout this poem?

14 “The Seven Ages of Man” Stages of man in the poem (1) Infancy – “mewling and puking” (2) Child – “whining school boy” (3) Youth of a Lover – “sighing like furnace” (4) Later Youth of a Soldier – “bearded like the pard” (5) Maturity and Middle Age of a Judge – “in fair round belly”

15 “The Seven Ages of Man” Stages (cont.) (6) Old Age – “spectacles on nose” (7) Senility – “second childishness In As You Like It Jaques is a cynic, a man who doubts the goodness and kindness of human beings. Explain how your reaction to the poem changes once you know Jaques’ personality.

16 The Total Effect The title addresses the poet’s main concern. The speaker is the person or thing that acts as the voice in the poem. The choice of words should fit the speaker. The sound of the poem – its use of rhyme, rhythm, onomatopoeia, repetition, alliteration, assonance, and parallelism – should suit its mood.

17 The Total Effect (cont) Imagery and figures of speech, such as personification, simile, and metaphor, should allow the poem to appeal directly to your senses and to your own experience. Remember that narrative poems tell stories and lyric poems express an emotion.

18 “maggie and milly and molly and may” Maggie, Milly, Molly, and May go to the beach. Each discovers a special part of herself in what she sees on the shore. Maggie – troubled; sea comforts her Milly – friendly, poetic Molly – timid, not inquisitive May – alone in a small world What literary devices are used by Cummings?

19 “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe First Stanza What type of bells are being described? What effect of Poe’s use of alliteration and assonance have on you as the reader?

20 “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe Second Stanza Type of bells? Effect of alliteration and assonance? Notice the presence of parallelism and personification?

21 “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe Third Stanza Type of bells? Alliteration/Assonance? Onomatopoeia?

22 “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe Fourth Stanza Type of bells? Personification?

23 “The Bells” by Edgar Allan Poe Structure of the poem Although each stanza begins and ends similarly, each stanza’s middle section is progressively larger and more developed. This allows Poe to show how horror gradually grows out of joy. Cheery, isn’t it?

24 Speaker and Word Choice In Poetry

25 Definitions Speaker – the voice of the poem OR the role that the poet plays in the poem Word Choice – the selection of words in a piece of literature to convey meaning, suggest attitude, and create images

26 “Knoxville, Tennessee” Themes – the seasons and childhood Speaker – The reference to “daddy” tells the reader that the speaker is more than likely a child. Tone – The use of the word “you” and the lack of punctuation give the poem an informal tone. The use of parallelism also gives the poem an informal tone. Can you see the parallelism?

27 “Child on Top of a Greenhouse” Theme – individualism and youth vs. age Speaker – the use of the word “my,” combined with the use of sophisticated words, establishes the speaker as an adult looking back on childhood. Word choice – vivid participles (flashing, rushing, plunging, tossing) denote a delight in the senses for the crowd watching. How does the child on the roof feel?

28 “The Base Stealer” Theme – taking risks Speaker – At first, the speaker is unidentified, but the reader later learns that the speaker is an observer when the third person pronoun “he” is used (line 7). Word Choice – The poet interjects into his descriptions of the base stealer the informal, “under the breath” urgings of the excited fan: “come on, come on,” “crowd him, crowd him,” and “Delicate, delicate, delicate – now!” (ll. 5, 9, 10).

29 “The Base Stealer” (cont.) The poet uses similes in lines 2 – “like a tightrope walker,” 4 – “bouncing tiptoe like a dropped ball,” 5 – “... or a kid skipping rope,” and 8 – “hovers like an ecstatic bird” Theme revisited – Francis suggests the exhilaration of taking risks by the use of the word “ecstatic” and by the exclamatory “now!” at the climax of the poem. The base stealer’s urgency suggests the necessity of taking risks. As a reader, how does Robert Francis make you feel about this small event?

30 Narrative Poetry “The Charge of the Light Brigade” and “Lord Randal”

31 “The Charge of the Light Brigade Theme: Courage and Honor, a soldier’s duty on the battlefield Throughout the poem, the author uses repetition to show the rhythm of the marching, well as to emphasize the lesser numbers of the Light Brigade. Repetition – the repeating of sounds, letters, words, or lines, which helps give the poetry its meaning, form, and sound. “Rode the six hundred”

32 “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (cont.) Stanza 2 – ll refers to the soldier’s duty, which is to follow orders without talking back or questioning and carrying them out even if the result is death. Stanza 3 – in ll Tennyson makes use of metaphors He uses fiercely dramatic metaphors to describe the challenges the British soldiers face in the battle with the Russians. Metaphor – A figure of speech that makes a comparison b/t two seemingly unlike things

33 “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (cont.) Main idea in stanzas 3-6 portray the brigade’s courage against overwhelming odds through the graphic images of being surrounded by cannons. Constant loss of soldiers coupled with being completely cut off from escape shows how strong the Light Brigade’s courage was

34 “Lord Randal” Theme – trust and betrayal Ballad – a short, musical narrative poem Each stanza opens with the mother asking a question. This suggests that the son is answering his mother reluctantly. Why? What literary effect is being used in the questioning?

35 “Lord Randal” (cont.) Main idea – In Stanza 4, the mother’s question suggests that Lord Randal did not realize he had been poisoned until he saw his dogs die. He put blind faith in this true-love. Stanza 5 – In typical ballad form, the love story reaches a tragic end through dialogue, repetition, simplicity of detail, and a limited number of characters.

36 IMAGERY & FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

37 Literary Terms Literal language – the ordinary language of everyday Figurative language – use of devices such as figures of speech (similes, metaphors, hyperbole, etc.)

38 “Dreams” What are the two metaphors linked together in this poem that describe dreams? What do these metaphors imply about the necessity of dreams? What warning does Hughes issue in his poem about dreams?

39 “The Seven Ages of Man” Speaker – Jaques (a character from Shakespeare’s As You Like It) The poem is an example of an extended metaphor. What is the metaphor being extended throughout this poem?

40 “The Seven Ages of Man” Stages of man in the poem (1) Infancy – “mewling and puking” (2) Child – “whining school boy” (3) Youth of a Lover – “sighing like furnace” (4) Later Youth of a Soldier – “bearded like the pard” (5) Maturity and Middle Age of a Judge – “in fair round belly”

41 “The Seven Ages of Man” Stages (cont.) (6) Old Age – “spectacles on nose” (7) Senility – “second childishness In As You Like It Jaques is a cynic, a man who doubts the goodness and kindness of human beings. Explain how your reaction to the poem changes once you know Jaques’ personality.

42 LYRIC POETRY

43 Lyric Poetry Poetry in which the speaker reveals personal thoughts and feelings. Comes from the Greek word lyrikos, a short poem sung to the music of the lyre, a small harp-like instrument.

44 “The Courage That My Mother Had” Main Idea - Loss leads the speaker to turn to her inheritance as a consolation, yet she yearns for a less tangible inheritance. What is the rhyme scheme of this poem? Point out some literary devices used by the author in this poem.

45 The Total Effect

46 Literary Terms Literal language – the ordinary language of everyday Figurative language – use of devices such as figures of speech (similes, metaphors, hyperbole, etc.)

47 The Total Effect The title addresses the poet’s main concern. The speaker is the person or thing that acts as the voice in the poem. The choice of words should fit the speaker. The sound of the poem – its use of rhyme, rhythm, onomatopoeia, repetition, alliteration, assonance, and parallelism – should suit its mood.

48 The Total Effect (cont) Imagery and figures of speech, such as personification, simile, and metaphor, should allow the poem to appeal directly to your senses and to your own experience. Remember that narrative poems tell stories and lyric poems express an emotion.

49 “maggie and milly and molly and may” Maggie, Milly, Molly, and May go to the beach. Each discovers a special part of herself in what she sees on the shore. Maggie – troubled; sea comforts her Milly – friendly, poetic Molly – timid, not inquisitive May – alone in a small world What literary devices are used by Cummings?

50 “Lost” Loneliness is the strongest theme. The poem’s strong visual images allow Sandburg to compare a fogbound ship to a lost child (ll. 1-9) There are some examples of assonance and alliteration in this poem. Identify some of these and discuss their effect on the poem.


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