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Summary & Conclusions “the continuum towards a modern TVET system” Ron Perkinson Principal Education Specialist International Finance Corporation World.

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Presentation on theme: "Summary & Conclusions “the continuum towards a modern TVET system” Ron Perkinson Principal Education Specialist International Finance Corporation World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Summary & Conclusions “the continuum towards a modern TVET system” Ron Perkinson Principal Education Specialist International Finance Corporation World Bank Group Presentation to TVET Conference, Beijing for Ministries of Finance / Education / Labour and Social Security 18 th May 2006

2 Purpose of Case Studies Create awareness of international best practice characteristics for TVET systemsCreate awareness of international best practice characteristics for TVET systems Discuss and debate best practice characteristics for a modern TVET systemDiscuss and debate best practice characteristics for a modern TVET system Target discussion at a broad policy levelTarget discussion at a broad policy level

3 Towards A More Integrated Education System Market-ledMarket-led More flexible and learner-centeredMore flexible and learner-centered Blending vocational and academic educationBlending vocational and academic education Responsive to a country’s future economic and social development needsResponsive to a country’s future economic and social development needs Caters for lifelong learnersCaters for lifelong learners Accommodates career and learning pathwaysAccommodates career and learning pathways

4 Australia Industry provides direction on how and where knowledge and skills best learned – school vs. workplaceIndustry provides direction on how and where knowledge and skills best learned – school vs. workplace Industry skills advisory groups advise on – competency standards and quality systems – assessment, accreditation and qualificationsIndustry skills advisory groups advise on – competency standards and quality systems – assessment, accreditation and qualifications Private sector provide Industry-specific strategic direction covering: – market intelligence and skills needs – quality managementPrivate sector provide Industry-specific strategic direction covering: – market intelligence and skills needs – quality management Sample System Characteristics

5 Denmark Extensive involvement of employees and employer organizationsExtensive involvement of employees and employer organizations System is paid for (in part) by employers through a national fundSystem is paid for (in part) by employers through a national fund Industry drives systems and standards – representation by employees, employers, providers and government (minority)Industry drives systems and standards – representation by employees, employers, providers and government (minority) Employers and employees responsible for developing programs and qualificationsEmployers and employees responsible for developing programs and qualifications

6 Finland Industry advises Ministry of EducationIndustry advises Ministry of Education Ministry of Education manages TVET systemMinistry of Education manages TVET system Providers, industry, business and unions involved in: – identifying skills requirements – development of qualificationsProviders, industry, business and unions involved in: – identifying skills requirements – development of qualifications TVET viewed as prestigious as university- based educationTVET viewed as prestigious as university- based education Sample System Characteristics

7 Creating the Vision for a Modern TVET System

8 Secondary School Vocational Courses Post Secondary TVET Tertiary Undergraduate Tertiary Postgraduate/PhD Certificates & Diplomas Higher Credentials & Qualifications (Degrees, Graduate Diplomas) Few Options for Career Pathways Adult Lifelong Learners Training the Workforce ??? Corporate & Industry Training Beyond Tertiary / Lifelong Learning

9 Secondary School Vocational Courses Post Secondary TVET Tertiary Undergraduate Tertiary Postgraduate/PhD Beyond Tertiary / Lifelong Learning Adult Lifelong Learners Training the Workforce Career Pathways Corporate & Industry Training Certificates & Diplomas Higher Credentials & Qualifications (Degrees, Graduate Diplomas) Frameworks for Career Pathways

10 Four Pillars Demand-driven / employer-ledDemand-driven / employer-led Lifelong learning opportunitiesLifelong learning opportunities Recognized qualifications / ‘certified’ trainingRecognized qualifications / ‘certified’ training Quality / accreditation / monitoringQuality / accreditation / monitoring

11 Employer-led / Demand-driven Industry and provider collaborationIndustry and provider collaboration Must reflect Industry requirementsMust reflect Industry requirements Should not be arbitrary view of provider or governmentShould not be arbitrary view of provider or government Needs Industry advice – content and standardsNeeds Industry advice – content and standards Flexibility to be more entrepreneurialFlexibility to be more entrepreneurial Want ‘certified’ training and academic qualificationsWant ‘certified’ training and academic qualifications

12 TVET & Lifelong Learning TVET is an important part of any lifelong learning systemTVET is an important part of any lifelong learning system Helps to foster career pathwaysHelps to foster career pathways

13 Qualifications Frameworks offer one alternative Integration between education and training – between vocational and academic education – reduces ‘stigma’/ increases prestigeIntegration between education and training – between vocational and academic education – reduces ‘stigma’/ increases prestige Credit transfer – progression up the qualifications ladder – career pathwaysCredit transfer – progression up the qualifications ladder – career pathways Qualifications can be gained from schools, colleges, workplaces, community, training centersQualifications can be gained from schools, colleges, workplaces, community, training centers

14 Internationalization / Foreign Partnerships Case Study Examples Fudan Pacific Finance InstituteFudan Pacific Finance Institute CIBT School of BusinessCIBT School of Business CIBT AutomotiveCIBT Automotive China Power IndustryChina Power Industry

15 Accreditation & Quality Apply Industry standards for TVETApply Industry standards for TVET Assuring quality for learnersAssuring quality for learners Promote provider confidence (public and private)Promote provider confidence (public and private) A cohesive accreditation and quality system should – integrate relevant ministries roles and responsibilities – enable external evaluations – link with social and economic goals – set key preformance indicators (more about outcomes - less about inputs) – measure TVET providers against Industry-led performance indicators – a ‘by exception’ only intervention policy by government

16 RelevanceRelevance Industry will help policy makers enhance inter- dependence between theory and practiceIndustry will help policy makers enhance inter- dependence between theory and practice Industry will advocate and guide policy on work- based training, apprenticeships and internshipsIndustry will advocate and guide policy on work- based training, apprenticeships and internships Use of Industry practitioners important – validating quality and accuracy of content – more ‘real world’ experienceUse of Industry practitioners important – validating quality and accuracy of content – more ‘real world’ experience China seeks mainly teacher qualifications rather than practical / industry experienceChina seeks mainly teacher qualifications rather than practical / industry experience

17 Further Food For Thought

18 Use of Information & Communications Technologies More scaleable - provide wider accessMore scaleable - provide wider access More convenient and flexible for continuous updating of knowledge and skillsMore convenient and flexible for continuous updating of knowledge and skills Reaches lifelong learnersReaches lifelong learners Review learning at own paceReview learning at own pace High quality outcomes emergingHigh quality outcomes emerging

19 Examples: SAC & Fudan Pacific Upgrading vocational diplomas to degreesUpgrading vocational diplomas to degrees Updating knowledge and skills during employmentUpdating knowledge and skills during employment Keeping up with changes in Industry requirementsKeeping up with changes in Industry requirements Flexible deliveryFlexible delivery Learner-centeredLearner-centered Satellite distance deliverySatellite distance delivery Quality education outcomesQuality education outcomes Lifelong learnersLifelong learners

20 Are quota systems appropriate in a more modern system? How do they meet industry, learner and provider needs?How do they meet industry, learner and provider needs? How are lifelong learners catered for?How are lifelong learners catered for? Can they stifle private sector growth?Can they stifle private sector growth? Modern systems (Quota or Non-Quota) will need to: – increase participation – promote responsiveness to changing markets – promote equity – open access for worthy individualsModern systems (Quota or Non-Quota) will need to: – increase participation – promote responsiveness to changing markets – promote equity – open access for worthy individuals

21 Private Sector is a Critical Partner !!

22 Increasing Capacity in Social & Economic Development Mobilizing private sector resources holds greater promise for expanding capacity in China’s TVET systemMobilizing private sector resources holds greater promise for expanding capacity in China’s TVET system Challenge for policy makers Enabling regulatory environment for private sector investment is essentialEnabling regulatory environment for private sector investment is essential

23 Private Investors Will Avoid... Smothering regulations – that create commercial uncertainty Political instability Revenue controls / capping tuition fees – can heighten commercial risk – can jeopardize commercial objectives, including capability to invest in higher quality inputs – can cause insufficient financial returns for servicing debt, or to provide fair returns to shareholders – regulations limiting equity & ownership (foreign) Uneven playing fields – where public and private institutions are not treated equally – where inconsistent / uneven approval processes disadvantage private investors

24 The pathway ahead

25 New System Objectives Achieve equitable outcomesAchieve equitable outcomes Enhance labor mobilityEnhance labor mobility Acquire skills of economic relevanceAcquire skills of economic relevance Increase private sector investment – optimize use of both public and private resourcing – financing and provisionIncrease private sector investment – optimize use of both public and private resourcing – financing and provision Possible social and economic outcomes More highly skilled workforce – more productive and competitiveMore highly skilled workforce – more productive and competitive More adaptable workforceMore adaptable workforce Improved employabilityImproved employability More harmonious societyMore harmonious society

26 Key Challenges for Policy Makers Stronger connection between ‘demand’ and ‘supply’Stronger connection between ‘demand’ and ‘supply’ Improve system flexibility and adaptability to market needsImprove system flexibility and adaptability to market needs Shift from ‘provider’ focus to needs of industry, learners and employersShift from ‘provider’ focus to needs of industry, learners and employers Better integration of TVET in to formal education system - ‘blending’ of vocational and academic educationBetter integration of TVET in to formal education system - ‘blending’ of vocational and academic education More equitable regulatory frameworkMore equitable regulatory framework Increased education and training opportunities for learners with more diverse needsIncreased education and training opportunities for learners with more diverse needs

27 Reaching Small to Medium Enterprise Not easy – problematicNot easy – problematic Challenge for policy makersChallenge for policy makers Most successful models for engagement: – subsidized Secretariats – Industry training groupsMost successful models for engagement: – subsidized Secretariats – Industry training groups

28 Key characteristics for a modern TVET system for China might include... Increased collaboration with industries and providersIncreased collaboration with industries and providers Better partnerships between providers and industryBetter partnerships between providers and industry Employer-led strategies, systems and standardsEmployer-led strategies, systems and standards Government engages industry to assess skills needs and improvre decision makingGovernment engages industry to assess skills needs and improvre decision making Focus more on TVET outcomes – and less on inputsFocus more on TVET outcomes – and less on inputs Promote valued qualifications that blend vocational and academic education and promote lifelong learningPromote valued qualifications that blend vocational and academic education and promote lifelong learning

29 Adapting policy to meet needs of a constantly changing market Governments must have a willingness to adopt policies that promote a more demand-driven and employer-led systemGovernments must have a willingness to adopt policies that promote a more demand-driven and employer-led system Policy makers need to develop strategies that will mobilize private sector resourcing to fill the demand gapPolicy makers need to develop strategies that will mobilize private sector resourcing to fill the demand gap

30 A time for new visionaries ‘No change’ is not an option !

31 “It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white.... as long as it catches mice.” Deng Xiaoping 学到老... 用到老 !... 用到老 !


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