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12.3 COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION. OPPOSITION TO RECONSTRUCTION KU KLUX KLAN Formed in 1866 “secret” society Used violence and intimidation Used economic.

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Presentation on theme: "12.3 COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION. OPPOSITION TO RECONSTRUCTION KU KLUX KLAN Formed in 1866 “secret” society Used violence and intimidation Used economic."— Presentation transcript:

1 12.3 COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION

2 OPPOSITION TO RECONSTRUCTION KU KLUX KLAN Formed in 1866 “secret” society Used violence and intimidation Used economic warfare

3 Mississippi Klansman, 1871 Members of the Ku Klux Klan devised ghoulish costumes to heighten the terror inspired by their acts. This photograph shows the costume of a Mississippi Klansman from (Courtesy of Mr. Herbert Peck, Jr.) Mississippi Klansman, 1871 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

4 The White League Alabama's White League, formed in 1874, strove to oust Republicans from office by intimidating black voters. To political cartoonist Thomas Nast, such vigilante tactics suggested an alliance between the White League and the outlawed Ku Klux Klan. (Harper's Weekly, October 24, 1874) The White League Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

5 Reconstruction cartoon This 1868 cartoon by Thomas Nast pictured the combination of forces that threatened the success of Reconstruction: southern opposition and the greed, partisanship, and racism of northern interests. (Library of Congress) Reconstruction cartoon Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 Grant Administration Grant (Republican) wins 214 electoral votes to Seymour’s (Democrat) 80 NOTE: Grant only wins popular vote by 300,000 SIGNIFICANCE: The approx. 500,000 to 700,000 Freedmen’s votes swing election to Grant.

7 Map: Popular Vote for President in the South, 1872 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

8 Grant Administration Grant – Popular soldier, inept (corrupt?) politician Grant’s Cabinet and Administration famous for graft, corruption and nepotism (his wife’s family) Despite, numerous scandals and charges of incompetence, Grant is reelected in 1872! Handles Panic of 1873 poorly

9 The Grant administration had already undergone the embarrassment of a slew of scandals—Credit Mobilier, Sanborn Contracts, Whiskey Ring, Navy Contracts, Emma Silver Mine, and others—in the fall 1876 elections, the Democrats attempt to impeach the president. Cartoon.asp?Month=June&Date=3

10 Compromise of 1877 Grant willing to run for 3 rd term, but Congress votes 233- to 18 on resolution to discourage him Republicans nominate Rutherford B. Hayes, veteran from Ohio Democrats nominate Samuel J. Tilden, reformer who convicted Tweed Tilden wins 184 of 185 needed votes, with 20 contested electoral votes. Tilden also wins popular vote.

11 Map: The Presidential Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 The Presidential Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 In 1876 a combination of solid southern support and Democratic gains in the North gave Samuel Tilden the majority of popular votes, but Rutherford B. Hayes won the disputed election in the electoral college, after a deal satisfied Democratic wishes for an end to Reconstruction. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

12 Compromise of 1877 AKA the Hayes-Tilden deal Republicans controlled the electoral commission, and gave election to Hayes. To avoid conflict, North/Republicans offer to withdraw federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina. Freedmen are abandoned for Northern political interests RECONSTRUCTION OFFICIALLY OVER

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14 THE FAILURE OF RECONSTRUCTION: DISENFRANCHISEMENT, GRAFT, & COMPROMISE OF 1877 Reconstruction troubled with corruption of Grant Administration, scalawags and carpetbaggers KKK and secret societies intimidation Congress’ Force acts of 1870 and 1871 ineffective Jim Crow laws & intimidation disenfranchise blacks Black officials and representatives removed from office by “electorate”    HOME RULE 1883: Supreme Court rules 1875 Civil Rights Act unconstitutional

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