Presentation on theme: "Mannerism 1525 - 1600. MANNERISM Between the HIGH RENAISSANCE & the BAROQUE era, ART, especially Italian art, developed into a style known as MANNERISM."— Presentation transcript:
MANNERISM Between the HIGH RENAISSANCE & the BAROQUE era, ART, especially Italian art, developed into a style known as MANNERISM. Mannerism was a deliberate revolt by artists against the goals of the Renaissance. Why was the flawless representation of nature & the human body, the rational & harmonious designs, and the classical balance of the High Renaissance rejected? MANNERSIM favored emotion over reason, dissonance over harmony, and imagination over reality. WHY?? Mannerism examples
POLITICAL UNREST IN ITALY: At the time of the High Renaissance, Italy was at peace and confident. Then……France invaded Italy & took over parts of it. Rome was sacked by the Germans & the Spaniards. France & Spain waged war over control of Italy and for the next century, much of Italy was ruled by foreign kings.
RELIGIOUS DISUNITY: At the beginning of the 16 th century Europe was Catholic & the Church was influential, politically powerful, extremely wealthy & CORRUPT. People were beginning to think the church offered meaningless rituals, “bought” pardons for sins, and consisted of clergy who abused their power, lived lavishly and immorally. People’s respect for priests, monks and popes weakened. There was a clear distrust and dislike of the clergy. Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church eventually led to the religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe. Early reformers believed the church should give up earthly possessions (views which were unpopular by church officials). These early reformers were removed from their positions, excommunicated by the pope, arrested and burned at the stake. Martin Luther publicly criticized the church in his Ninety-Five Theses (which he nailed to church doors to act as public bulletins). He insisted that God’s grace cannot be won by money, and declared the only head of the church was Jesus, not the pope. He insisted that people should be their own interpreters of scripture. Desire for reform grew. The pope expelled him from the church and he was declared an outlaw. There were “protests” against hi2 writings – Protestant. These and other ideas spread across Europe. Protestant Reformation spread to England when King Henry VIII declared himself head of the Church of England after the pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine.
Mannerist Style Features: Compositions with no focal point Ambiguous space Compositions are jammed and often unbalanced Figures bend and twist in unnatural ways Figures often grossly muscular Distortions and exaggerations in the body Elongated limbs Bizarre postures Uniform small, oval heads Clashing, artificial colours Instability and restlessness Artificial lighting to heighten tension Pontormo Deposition, Jacopo Pontormo c. 1528
COMPARE these 2 works of the same subject matter but of different Art periods. Madonna with the Long Neck, 1535, Parmigianino Mannerism High Renaissance Exaggerations Disproportionate Tiny head and feet compared to hips (diamond shape) Elegant, weightless Impossibly long, boneless fingers Long neck Ambiguity in space Angels on left – uncertainty in their purpose Echoes Michelangelo’s Pieta (Christ is asleep but looks dead too) Erotic undertones Ambiguity = successful mannerist artwork
Exemplifies crowded, dramatic compositions that displayed Mannerist traits like a plunging diagonal perspective, off balance design & lighting for emotional effect rather than accuracy. More about imaginations than reality (angels). Includes servants, dishwasher, animal drinking water – disconnect. Lantern = Holy Spirit. Judas – only one on opposite side of table, no halo The Last Supper by Tintoretto, 1592–94
Greek born painter, sculptor, and architect who settled in Spain and is regarded as the first great artist of Spain. He was known as El Greco (the Greek), but his real name was Domenikos Theotocopoulos El Greco, 1586 El Greco, Holy Trinity, 1577 Long, distorted bodies Harsh light Exaggeration of features Strong, acid colours Twisted figures Sense of movement Emotion
Even the stable, pyramidal compositions of Renaissance sculpture take on a new twist Rape of the Sabine Woman, Bologna, 1583 MANNERISM showing twisting, emotional turmoil & off- balanced composition Renaissance: calm, classical beauty, rational design with stable pyramidal composition