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By Kasey Andrews Kelly McDowell

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1 By Kasey Andrews Kelly McDowell
Hallucinogens By Kasey Andrews Kelly McDowell

2 Statistics : Hallucinogen use rose tenfold from 90,000 to 900,000 new users. : Use again rose, nearly 3 fold from 600,000 to 1.5 million new users. : LSD use decreased dramatically while MDMA and others rose.

3 Definitions “Substances that create gross distortions in perception without causing loss of consciousness when administered in low doses.” “Substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization.”

4 Hallucinogens also called…
Psychedelics: substances that expand or heighten perception and consciousness. Psychotomimetic: substances that mimic psychosis. Psychotogenic: substances that produce psychosis.

5 Hallucinogens … Are found naturally in plants and can be produced synthetically. Are used by Native American tribes for use during religious ceremonies. Resemble 1 of 4 neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Catecholamines (Norepinephrine & Dopamine) Serotonin

6 Common Hallucinogenic Effects
Alterations in time and space perception Changes in self-awareness Increase sensitivity to textures, shapes, tastes, and sounds Visual disturbances (i.e. flashes of light or kaleidoscope-like patterns) Hallucinations Feelings of enlightenment or spiritual awakening

7 4 Categories of Hallucinogens
Anticholinergic Catecholamine-like Serotonin-like Psychedelic Anesthetics

8 Anticholinergic Hallucinogens

9 Found in Belladonna, Nightshade, Jimsonweed, and Mandrake plants.
Attach to Acetylcholine receptors and block the site so Acetylcholine cannot attach. Impairs learning and memory as result Found in Belladonna, Nightshade, Jimsonweed, and Mandrake plants. Effects: Dry mouth, decreased sweating, dry skin, increased body temperature, blurred vision, increased heart rate, dilated pupils, drowsiness, decreased attention. @ High Doses = Hallucinations, paralysis of respiratory system, coma, and death. Examples: Scopolamine, Mandrake, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine, and Atropine.

10 Scopolamine datura Mandrake
used as poison and aphrodisiac in Renaissance Times. Contained in Datura plant. Mixed with drinks to create a stupor in wives of chiefs or warriors before they were buried alive. Mandrake used to treat anxiety and acute pain. datura

11 Catecholamine-Like Hallucinogens

12 Also called Phenethylamine Psychedelics
Structurally similar to Catecholamines (Norepinephrine & Dopamine) and Amphetamines. Explains why these drugs have stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Are mixed Dopamine and Serotonin agonists.

13 EXAMPLES: Mescaline Myristin Elemicin Synthetic Amphetamine Derivatives

14 Myristin & Elemicin Myristin: found in nutmeg Elemicin: found in mace
Has similar structure as Mescaline Blocks release of serotonin in brain neurons. 5-15 g. (approximately 2 tablespoons) in tea will produce confusion, disorientation, depersonalization, and feelings of unreality. Side Effects: vomiting, nausea, agitation, dry mouth, rapid heart beat, and tremors. Negative effects can last up to 12 hours.

15 Synthetic Amphetamine Derivatives
DOM (dimethoxymethylamphetamine) MDA (Methylenedioxyamphetamine) TMA (trimethoxyamphetamine) DMA (dimethoxymethylamphetamine) MDE (methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) MDMA (methylenedioymethamphetamine) PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine)

16 Cause increase of serotonin in synaptic cleft, & block the reuptake of it from cleft.
= same for Dopamine Increased Serotonin effects sensory information reception, and causes changes in sleep patterns and emotions.

17 DOM 1-6 mg doses produce euphoria and hallucinations for 6-8 hours in duration. Hallucinogenic effects overpower the amphetamine effects. (is stimulant at low doses and hallucinogen at high doses) At Toxic doses can produce tremors, convulsions, and death.

18 MDA Metabolite of MDMA Synthesized in 1910 Schedule I Drug in 1970
Used to decrease appetite. Called “Love Drug” because it heightens tactile sensations. Causes increased release of Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine. Effect: dilation of pupils, tightening of jaw, grinding of teeth, and physical exhaustion that can last for 2 days. High Doses: ( mg) convulsions and death.

19 MDMA Street Names: Adam, Ecstasy, X, E, XTC, Blue Kisses, E bombs, Happy Pill, Hug Drug, Smurfs, Wafers, & others More psychedelic than MDA Synthesized in 1912 Schedule 1 Drug in 1985 Effects similar to MDA

20 MDMA Combos Candy Flipping = LSD + MDMA Diamonds = Amphetamines + MDMA
Disco Biscuits = Depressants + MDMA Flower Flipping = Mushrooms + MDMA H-Bomb = Heroin + MDMA Gum = Opium + MDMA Kitty Flipping = Ketamine + MDMA Sextasy = Viagra + MDMA

21 Pharmacokinetics: Pharmacodynamics: orally, injected, or snorted.
Effects last 3-6 hours Dose is 1-2 tablets ( mg each) Readily absorbed in GI tract Pharmacodynamics: Increases levels of Norepinephrine, dopamine, & serotonin released.

22 MDMA Effects Hallucinogenic Effects: distortions in time & perception.
Stimulant Effects: Euphoria & hyperactivity, increase blood pressure & heart rate

23 MDMA…The Negative Effects
Psychological: depression, severe anxiety, paranoia, and sleep disturbances. Physical: muscle tension, teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, chills, & faintness. High doses: sharp increase in body temperature, muscle breakdown, and kidney & cardiovascular system failure. These effect also happen at low doses in combination with intense exercise or acitivity. Long-Term: liver damage & brain damage. Brain damage due to destruction of serotonin producing neurons = therefore problems regulating mood, pain, sleep, and aggression can result.

24 MDMA effect on Serotonin producing neurons
2 wks: 83-95% reduction in serotonin axon density. 7 yrs: some recovery occurs, but significant loss of serotonin neurons has occurred.

25 PMA Effects similar to that of MDMA, but more toxic.
Is extremely potent and lethal. Schedule 1 Drug in 1973 Sold in tablet, capsule, or powder form. Administered orally, inhaled, or injected. >50 mg = LETHAL, causing cardiac arrhythmia, renal failure, vomiting, hyperthermia, convulsions, and death. Street Names: Death, Mitsubishi Double-Stack.

26 PMA Cont. 1973: produced in Canada in clandestine labs.
11 deaths attributed to its use in this year alone. 2000: 7 deaths due to PMA use. Victims believed they were taking ecstasy, so they accidentally overdosed.

27 Serotonin-like Hallucinogens

28 Also called Indoleamine Psychedelics
Act as agonist of Serotonin Receptors specifically 5-HT2 Serotonin Receptors

29 Examples: LSD Psilocybin Psilocin DMT Bufotenine Ololiuqui Harmine

30 LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

31 Street Names Acid, Battery Acid, Pane, Brown Bombers, Coffee, Crystal Tea, Dots, Golden Dragon, Haze, Looney Toons, Microdot, Lucy, Paper Acid, Pearly Gates, Pink Panther, Rainbow, Superman, White Lightening, Window Glass, Yin Yang, Zen, Yellow Sunshine, Sugar Cubes, & others.

32 Derived from ergot alkaloids of the rye fungus.
Colorless, odorless, bitter taste. Most potent mood & perception altering drug known to man. (can cause effects at 25 μg = in weight to a few grains of salt). Can be synthesized in 1 week Was used to treat alcoholism, paranoia, schizophrenia, and autism.

33 History 1938: Albert Hofmann synthesizes LSD-25
1943: Hofmann discovers hallucinogenic effects 1st hand when he accidentally ingests it. Later he ingests 0.25 mg of it thinking it is a minimal dose, when in actuality it is 10 times the dose needed to produce an effect. “My visual field wavered and everything appeared deformed as in a faulty mirror. Space and time became more and more disorganized and I was overcome by fear that I was going out of my mind… It was particularly striking how acoustic perceptions, such as the noise of water gushing from a tap or the spoken word, were transformed into optical illusions.”

34 History Cont. : LSD used experimentally in mental facilities as treatment for mental disorders. 1950’s: CIA & Army conduct secret experiments on human subjects using LSD. 1953: Frank Olsen, a biochemist, kills himself after unknowingly consuming a drink containing LSD. 1966: Timothy Leary, an former professor at Harvard, forms a religion called “League of Spiritual Discovery” in an attempt to use LSD and other hallucinogens legally.

35 History Cont. 1976: truth about the CIA & Army experiments are uncovered, revealing that nearly 585 soldiers and 900 civilians were given LSD without their knowledge for research purposes. March 31, 2003: DEA busts the biggest LSD lab in history, seizing 41.3 kg or 91 lbs. of LSD.

36 LSD in Popular Culture Timothy Leary was a psychologist in the 1960’s advocating LSD use to enhance awareness. He began running experiments with subjects under the influence of LSD. Jerry Garcia was among them. He also coined the phrase: “Tune in, Turn on, Drop out.” After being removed from his position at Harvard, Leary founded two institutions for further LSD study.

37 LSD in popular culture cont.
Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass written about an LSD experience. Popular musicians of the 1960’s greatly influenced by LSD. Ex- Beatles, Grateful Dead etc.

38 Pharmacokinetics Administered orally, smoked, snorted, or injected.
Doses μg. (lethal dose = 14,000 μg) Microdots: tablet form, Window panes: LSD in gelatin, Blotter acid: liquid added to paper, Sugar cubes: LSD in sugar cubes. Absorbed within 1 hour. Effects last 6-12 hours. Diffuses across all barriers in body Metabolized in liver and excreted in urine No physical/physiological dependence Few if any withdrawal symptoms Tolerance and cross-tolerance to other hallucinogens does occur. (is lost within days after cessation of use).

39 Pharmacodynamics Binds to 5-HT2 serotonin receptors
Effects due to disruption of raphe nuclei (pons/medulla), which filters incoming sensory stimuli, creating surge of sensory information and overload of brain circuits. Effects cerebral cortex (involved in mood, cognition, and perception) & locus ceruleus (receives sensory info) LSD in high concentrations in iris of eye.

40 Effects Dilation of pupils, dizziness, dreamy detached feelings, changes in time perception, color/smells/sounds intensified, increase heart rate & blood pressure, sweating, dry mouth, hallucinations. At High doses causes nausea, tremors, & confusion. Moods typically depends on mood prior to use, causing those to become intensified. However, moods can change quickly from euphoria to terror and panic.

41 2 Types of Emotional Responses to LSD:
Ecstatic-Transcendental Reactions: users become talkative, euphoric, ideas seem to have great importance. Panic & Psychotic-like Reactions: users experience intense anxiety & fear, lose control of thoughts & emotions, become paniced. Known as a Bad Trip Can result in accidents or accidental suicides due to individual attempting to flee panic and terror they are experiencing.

42 Long-Term Effects Psychosis = dramatic mood swings
HPPD (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder) = also called Flashbacks. Former users experience spontaneous/repeated/continuous sensory distortions (seeing false motions or trails, etc.)

43 DMT (Dimethyltryptamine)
Short-acting serotonin agonist (30 min) = Called “businessman’s lunch break drug” Produces LSD-like effects snorted or smoked Can’t be taken orally, because acid in stomach destroys drug before absorption can occur. Metabolized by MAO (monoamine oxidase) Found in Leguminous trees & shrubs in West Indies and South America Dose mg

44 Bufotenine Found in toad skins Metabolized by MAO

45 Psilocybin/Psilocin (4-phosphoryl-DMT)/(4-hydroxy-DMT)
Found in psiloycbe mexicana mushroom Peak effects within 2 hours, and last 6-10 hours. Psilocybin broken down into psilocin (active psychedelic agent). Eaten dried or fresh Hallucinogenic effects at doses > 4 mg Dried mushroom contains % psilocybin Street Names: mushrooms, magic mushrooms, shrooms, Musk, Silly Putty, Simple Simon.

46 Psilocybin/Psilocin History
1955: identified by Gordon Wasson 1958: extracted by Albert Hofmann Ate 32 mushrooms to discover effect.

47 Ololiuqui Found in morning glory seeds
Used by tribes in Central & South America 100+ seeds creates hallucinations, distorted visions, confusion. Side Effects: nausea, vomiting, headache, & sleepiness.

48 Harmine Found in plants & shrubs in Middle East & South America.
Side Effects: intoxication, hallucinations, sleep, nausea, and vomiting.

49 Psychedelic Anesthetics

50 PCP (Phencyclidine) Street Names: Angel Dust, Black Dust, Blue Madman, Busy Bee, Cliffhanger, Crazy Coke, Crystal T, Dipper, Devil’s Dust, Embalming Fluid, Peace Pill, Peter Pan, Rocket Fuel, Tic Tac, Wobble Weed, Yellow Weed.

51 History Developed in 1956 as intravenous anesthetic.
1965: Use was discontinued due to delirium and mania experienced after coming off drug (effects lasted up to 18 hours). 1967: 1st appeared on streets.

52 Pharmacokinetics Administered orally, smoked, snorted, or injected.
Often applied to parsley, oregano, or marijuana. Stimulates brain reward areas, thus creating psychological dependence. Withdrawal symptoms sometimes occur.

53 Dose Effects Low to moderate Doses: (< 5 mg) increased respiration, heart beat, and blood pressure; profuse sweating, numbness of extremities, muscular incoordination, hallucinations, feelings of increased strength and invulnerability. High Doses: (> 10 mg) decreased respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure; nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, flickering eyes. Drooling, dizziness, seizures, coma, death. Long-term: memory loss, speech difficulties, depression, weight loss.

54 Pharmacodynamics NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) or Glutamate receptors.
Blocks open channel on NMDA receptor preventing glutamate from attaching and creating its effect. Glutamate plays role in pain perception, memory, cognition, and emotion.

55 PCP Therapy Minimize sensory input by placing them in quiet environment. Administer acitvated charcoal orally (it binds to PCP in the stomach & intestines preventing it from being reabsorbed). Physically restrain user to protect them and others. Sedation with Benzodiazepine.

56 Ketamine (Ketalar) Street Names: Cat Valium, Jet, Kit Kat, Special K, Vitamin K Developed in 1963 to replace PCP as anesthetic. Injected, snorted, orally ingested. Odorless, tasteless so often used as date rape drug.

57 Ketamine Cont. Blocks NMDA receptor channel, or decreases frequency of channel opening by binding to outside of receptor. Effects similar to PCP, with bad trip called “K-hole”.

58 Other Hallucinogens

59 Kinikinik Also called Bearberry, rockberry, beargrape, or Samah.
Found in shrubs or red willow. Inner red bark and dried leaves can be mixed with tobacco and/or various herbal mixtures and smoked. Used to treat urinary tract infections. Can create hallucinations, out-of-body experiences. Side Effects: rash, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, gastritis, blisters in mouth and throat.

60 Conclusion: Hallucinogens are relatively safe
Hallucinogens are extremely potent Hallucinogen’s effects are unpredictable, thus can be dangerous to user and others. Most drugs can cause hallucinations and hallucinogenic effects when taken in high doses.

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