Hollywood Cinema: Industry Originated as a distinctive product of the Hollywood Studio System from 1930 to 1959 The American film industry has dominated global film production ever since Similar model still widely used today
Hollywood Cinema: Industry Emphasis on industry (money) over art Major companies undertake production, distribution and exhibition Factory production-line approach Has come to mean ‘mainstream’ (non- controversial)
Horizontal Integration Ownership of the same type of company / product A butcher may become successful and decide to buy more shops
Vertical Integration Ownership of different types of related companies / products in order to maximize profit and control the market A butcher may decide to buy the farm that rears the livestock and the restaurants that uses the meat
Hollywood Cinema In pairs, discuss and make bullet point notes on the following: Style (consider the 5 areas of film language) Narrative Character Genre Audience
Hollywood Cinema: Style Artifice rather than realism (artificial reality or ‘heightened realism’) Studio sets rather than real locations Artificial lighting (back lighting) Use of music to emphasise tone, mood and atmosphere and to heighten emotion
Hollywood Cinema: Style Fairly short scenes and tendency for rapid editing (to keep audience interested) Use of slo-mo; dissolves etc Lots of special effects Emphasis on ‘glamour’ Emphasis on escapism Emphasis on entertainment
Hollywood Cinema: Narrative Prioritises ‘story’ using straightforward narrative techniques Easily understood by widest possible audience Avoidance of any narrative complexity Continuity editing to ‘hide’ constructed nature of film production
Hollywood Cinema: Narrative Linear cause and effect narrative One main narrative strand Emphasis on action (moving narrative forward) High degree of narrative closure – usually a ‘happy ending’ If not happy, then at least ‘satisfying’
Hollywood Cinema: Character Relatively small number of characters to maximise audience involvement (identification and empathy with main protagonists) Characters have clearly-defined motivations for their actions (realism?) Emotional involvement with characters and their predicaments Characters have ‘hero’ qualities (they are ego-ideals rather than ‘real’ people) Heavily reliant on the ‘star system’
Hollywood Cinema: Genre Recognisable generic features -audiences predict actions and events Fulfil audience expectations (generic unity) Pleasure Passive audience?
Hollywood Cinema: Audience A number of formal features: Feature length (85 + minutes in duration) Designed to maximise its potential audience both home and abroad Mass-market, global appeal
Hollywood Cinema Carry out your own research on: Classical Narrative Cinema Apply what you have learned to a recent American film of your choice.