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Fingers & Fears: injury & the role of self-efficacy in rock climbing Presented by Gareth Jones.

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Presentation on theme: "Fingers & Fears: injury & the role of self-efficacy in rock climbing Presented by Gareth Jones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fingers & Fears: injury & the role of self-efficacy in rock climbing Presented by Gareth Jones

2 Introduction  Rock climbing is an increasingly popular recreational activity despite the obvious inherent risks  Psychological variables have been shown to be crucial to successful climbing performance  Psychological factors may play a key role in the antecedents of some athletic injuries

3 Major Influences on Climbing!!

4 Types of Climbing Behaviour

5 Bouldering Traditional Leading

6 Sport Climbing

7 Competitive Disciplines

8 Soloing Top Roping

9 Climbing Injuries Climbers are susceptible to overuse injuries of the upper limb: Studies consistently report a high prevalence of finger related injuries (Jones et al, 2008; Shoffl et al, 2003)  Disruption of the annular pulley system (particularly A2)  Rotator cuff and shoulder impingement syndromes which are associated with prolonged and repeated reaching overhead (Peters, 2001)  Tendonopathies

10 Why are the fingers susceptible ?  During the crimp grip wrist extension increases the mechanical advantage of the finger flexors and reduces active insufficiency ( Lockwood, 1998)  Paradoxically this hand position may increase the pre-disposition of the climber to injury (Joel et al, 2000)

11 Why the 3 rd & 4 th fingers ?  Flexion of the remaining fingers when holding a one finger pocket may increase the maximum holding force up to 48% (Shweizer, 2001)  Lumbrical tears to the third or fourth lumbrical may occur if the finger is dynamically loaded ( Shweizer 2003 )

12 What is already known on this topic  Rock climbing is increasingly popular worldwide  Chronic overuse injuries to the upper extremities, particularly the fingers, are common in climbers ascending difficult indoor routes frequently  Misdiagnosis and delays in treatment occur due to unfamiliarity with climbing injuries In consideration of the current literature an epidemiological study was conducted

13 Risk Factors for Injury  Only outdoor sport lead grade predicted fall related injuries (odds ratio (OR) 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47 to 2.09)  The frequency and difficulty of all forms of climbing behaviour were associated with overuse injuries, with the exception of soloing grade and traditional lead frequency  Bouldering grade was the sole predictor of injuries relating to strenuous moves (odds ratio (OR) 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.02 to 1.50) Jones, Asghar & Llewellyn (2008)

14 What our study adds  Dedicated climbers operating outdoors at the highest levels are also at risk of overuse injury, particularly finger and shoulder overuse injuries  Fall-related injuries are comparatively infrequent, although often serious and all climbers may incur them  Physiotherapists, other climbers and physicians are the key sources of treatment or advice. Jones, Asghar & Llewellyn (2008)

15 What of psychological factors and occurence of injury?

16 Stress–Athletic Injury Model Adapted from Andersen and Williams (1998)

17 Balance of evidence for the model  Personality-injury evidence has produced mixed results  Empirical support for negative life event stress  Daily hassles has been shown to be a factor one week prior to injury  Previous injury, fear of re-injury may heighten anxiety  Most relevant to acute injuries does not explain overuse What other factors may be important? What of overuse injuries?

18 The role of Self-Efficacy “belief in one’s capability to organise and execute the courses of action required to produce attainments” ( Bandura, 1997, p.3)

19 How are Self-Efficacy beliefs formed?  Enactive mastery experiences  Social modelling  Verbal persuasion  Physiological arousal Key point: Key point: self-efficacy is reciprically determinate

20 The games climbers play!!  Pre-inspection  Pre-practice of route  Information from others ‘Beta’  Pre-place strategic runners  ‘Head-point’  ‘Red-point’ What of ethics?

21 Self-efficacy research  Associated with the frequency and difficulty of a wide range of medium and high risk climbing behaviours  Key determinate when taking calculated risks in climbing and shown to be predictive of performance (Llewellyn, Sanchez, Ashgar & Jones, 2008)  Does not appear to predict climbing injuries (Jones, Llewellyn & Ashgar 2007)

22 Time for a short film

23 Presenters Research  Jones, G. Llewellyn, D.J. & Asghar, A. (2007) Risk factors in rock climbing. Proceedings of the 2007 World Conference of Physical Therapy. Vancouver, Canada.  Jones G., Asghar A., & Llewellyn DJ. (2008) The epidemiology of rock climbing injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine: 42: 773-778.  Llewellyn DJ, Sanchez X., Ashghar A., Jones G. (2008) Self-efficacy, risk taking and performance in rock climbing. Personality & Individual Differences : 45: 75-81.  Sanchez X, Lambert PH, Jones G, Llewellyn DJ. (2010) Efficacy of pre-ascent climbing route visual inspection in indoor sport climbing. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports

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